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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 | 1923

Category: Article

article id 7087, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1923). Fischwasseruntersuchung im Staatsrevier Evo. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 12 article id 7087.
English title: Studies on fishing grounds in State forest Evo.
The aim of the article is to describe the different fishing grounds of state owned areas in Evo and to compare them with each other. Seven lakes (Valkea-Mustajärvi, Iso Mustajärvi, Ylimmäinen Rautjärvi, Kaitalampi, Hautajärvi, Syrjänalunen and Onkimajärvi) are presented. The nutrition production of the lakes and the regulation of the fish stock in the lakes are discussed.
  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7086, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1923). Beobachtungen über das Wurzelsystem der Kiefer im Moorböden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 11 article id 7086.
English title: Observations on the root system of pine on marshy soils.
English keywords: peatlands; root system; root growth; pine

The data has been collected during 1919 and 1920 in different region of Finland. The studied peatlands varied from fuscum pine swamps to pine swamps and partly to better sedge pine swamps.

The study presents five different forms of root systems. The root growth of pine on peatlands seems to vary strongly from the root form on mineral soils. On the peatlands, where the ground water near to soil cover is, can the roots grow only near the soil surface where the conditions are suitable. For the pine typical tap root is in most cases absent or grows along the soil surface. Also the frost heaving, snow and characteristics of peat affect the root system.   

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7085, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Korrelation zwischen den Eigenschaften des Bodens und dem Zuwachs des Waldbestandes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 10 article id 7085.
English title: Paper on the correlation between the characteristics of the soil and the growth of forest stand.

The study is based on the results of the soil studies by Valmari (1921) and the growth inventories of respective areas. The aim is to show the connection of soil fertility (nutrient content) and forest growth with means of correlation calculations. The examined nutrients were nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, also the electrolyte content was studied.

The results show that with increase of nitrogen content of the soil the growth of pine stand increases as well. The correlation is clearly identified. The number of birch and spruce stands is too small for systematic review. For calcium there is a similar kind of relation. With phosphorus content or amount of electrolytes the correlation with doesn’t exist. Also the loss on ignition test was conducted. The relation found is somewhat weak.
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7084, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1924). Über neuere forstliche Betriebsarten in Deutschland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 9 article id 7084.
English title: On newer forest management regimes in Germany.

Forest management practices have deployed during the centuries very differently in different regions. The geographical as well as other nature related factors influence them heavily. During the first half of 19th century was shelterwood felling much used practice especially in Prussia. Meanwhile the clearcutting with planting the seedlings became also more popular. The method is still widely used in many countries. Becoming more popular the clear cut and planting practice changed the modus operandi of forestry from close-to-nature to economically-oriented.

The article discusses based on literature the most important developments of the forest management practices, especially regarding felling and regeneration methods. The article concludes with the view that usage of boarder selection felling as well as continuous forest management system are not suitable for small-scale forestry (on small private estates) on in Finland common barren sites. On more fertile soils the boarder selection felling would give good results and could be recommended also for more use. However, the bad market conditions make the more intensive forest management impossible in most parts of Finland. More research is needed in order to find best felling methods for fertile small-scale private forests.
  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7083, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Versuche zur Klärung der Schutzwirkungen von wässerigen Humusauszügen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 8 article id 7083.
English title: Experiments on clarification of protective action of watery humus extracts.
Original keywords: Humus; Schutztwirkung; Boden; Ortstein; Versuche

The article deals with laboratory experiments of humus containing soil samples that were tested for leaching of iron and lime. The humus and soil samples were collected in five different areas in Silesian state forests, Germany.

The chemical content of the extracts was measured in the beginning of the test. The flocculation experiments and experiments in glass tubes took place. The stronger or weaker the podsolization, the greater or smaller was the protective action of hums at the respective place. However, more research is needed. The results of the glass tube experiments seem to indicate that with humus there were smaller amounts of Ca and Fe leaching than with merely water. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7082, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Zur Kenntnis der Ausfällung des Eisens im Boden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 7 article id 7082.
English title: Knowledge on precipitation of iron in soil.

This is a working paper. It presents the laboratory experiments with soil samples from northern Finland, in which the precipitation of iron (Fe) was tested with limewater (Ca). There was no clear difference between samples with limewater and samples without limewater. However, the lime prevented the infiltration of iron almost totally.

The mineral content of soil effects the forest growth and yield and hence it is of interest for forestry. More research is needed both as field experiments and in the laboratory. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7081, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Über die räumliche Ordnung der Pflanzen auf dem Felde und im Walde. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 6 article id 7081.
English title: On the spatial order of plants on fields and in forests.
Original keywords: Wurzeln; Feldversuche; Mais; Waldtypen; Boden

The article contains a literature review about the spatial order of plants and a description of the small-scale experiments with corn. The literature is primarily of German origin. The question of the spatial conditions of trees in forest is important for practice of silviculture. The first part of the article illustrates based on the literature the importance of roots and root concurrence for the development of plants or forest stands. The second and third part deepens the methodological knowledge on root research. Fourth part is the field experiments with corn. There are no clear relation to be found between yield and the number of plants.  

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7080, category Article
J. W. Lindeberg. (1923). Über die Berechnung des Mittelfehlers des Resultates einer Linientaxierung. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 5 article id 7080.
English title: Calculating the standard error in the strip-survey results.

The article features a critical observation on used methods for calculating the errors and a trial to improve it. The article describes the calculation method used in Sweden, county of Värmland and another method used by Ilvessalo and developed by Cajanus. The shortcomings of these models are discussed. An improved calculation is presented.  

  • Lindeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7079, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Was wird mit den Waldtypen bezweckt? Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 7079.
English title: What do the forest types stand for?
Original keywords: Waldtypen; Begriff; Zweck
English keywords: forest type; concept; purpose

The article aims to clarify the terminology and concepts related to forest type classification. The silvicultural meaning of forest type classification is to create classes so that the forests in one class have proximately same growth and yield conditions. The article describes the meaning of silvicultural forest type classification with seven objectives: to create a common height over age -site classification for all tree species; to achieve a common site classification practice for different countries; to achieve the natural height over age –site classifications that are easy to take into account by map drawing; to be able to treat the data for every class separately; to achieve a simple but illustrative description of the site characteristics; to have a foundation for special (applied) silviculture; to create as uniform classification of forests as possible for silvicultural, forest planning or forest policy purposes.     

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7078, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über die Verteilung des fruchtbaren Bodens in Finnland und über den Einfluss dieser Verteilung auf die wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Lande. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 7078.
English title: On the division of fertile soils in Finland and its influence on the economic conditions.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland.

The article presents the classification of soils as forest types to describe their fertility and their occurrence in different parts of Finland. The economic conditions are only shortly mentioned: the more fertile areas in southern and western Finland have been taken for agriculture and the less fertile soils have stayed forested.   

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7077, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über das Verhältnis zwischen Waldzuwachs und Holzverbrauch in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 7077.
English title: On the relation between forest growth and timber consumption in Finland.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923), and again for the German visitors (August 20th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland. The speech deals with the question of the overuse of Finnish forest compared to their growth. The developments of slash-and-burn-culture and forest inventories are described. The results of the inventories show, though still in preliminary state, that there is no nationwide overuse in total, though there are some locations where the felling are bigger than growth. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7076, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Forstlich-geographische Übersicht Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 1 article id 7076.
English title: Overview of Finland’s forests and geography.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923), and again for the German visitors (August 20th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland. The speech gives an overview of Finland’s forest resources region by region starting from far north. Also the most important uses and changes of forest as well as forest industry locations are mentioned. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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