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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 | 1929

Category: Article

article id 7213, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1929). Aimo Kaarlo Cajander: 50-vuotisjuhlajulkaisu. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. I article id 7213. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7213
English title: Professor A. K. Cajander’s fiftieth birthday.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is dedicated to professor Dr. Aimo Kaarlo Cajander, who celebrated his 50th birthday in 1929. The article is an introduction to his work and career. He has been responsible for developing the education in forestry, and planning and developing of forest research in Finland.

The PDF includes the text in Finnish, Swedish, English, German and French.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail: info@metsatiede.org (email)
article id 7255, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1929). Untersuchungen über die Schlankheit der Kiefer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 42 article id 7255. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7255
  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7254, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsäteknologisen tutkimuksen lähiaikojen tehtävistä Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 41 article id 7254. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7254
English title: The next tasks of wood-technological research in Finland.

The article gives a summary of the range of the wood-technological research, and suggests that the research in the subject in Finland should be divided in two parts: research on problems of wood-technology in the strict sense of the word, and those concerning wood refinement and the problems of wood technology, related to the latter. The wood-technology research would be addressed to the Forest Research Institute, and the research on wood refinement to the organization to be founded by the wood manufacturing industry. Finally, main subjects to be studied are listed.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7253, category Article
K. Linkola. (1929). Zur Kenntnis der Waldtypen Eestis. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 40 article id 7253. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7253
  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7252, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1929). Notes on some forest (site) types in North America. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 39 article id 7252. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7252

The article includes observations on forest site types in Canada and the United States, with special emphasis on forests of lodgepole pine (Pinus murrayana, now Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) which the author considers a species that can become a favourite exotic tree species in Finland. Some notes are made also about Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The author was not able to make a systematic forest type investigation, because the journey was made on another purpose. The article describes the vegetation and climate of the visited areas, and divides the forest site types in three groups: Dry forest site types, moist forest site types and grass-herb site types. The vegetation and plant species on several subtypes are described in detail.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7251, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1929). Puuluokitus ja harvennusasteikko. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 38 article id 7251. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7251
English title: Utilization of tree classification in thinnings.
English keywords: crown class; thinning method

Doctor Lauri Ilvessalo modified tree classification developed by professor Gunnar Schotte to develop a tree classification and thinning system that suited Finnish conditions. His system was first applied when the Finnish Forest Research Institute began thinning experiments in a large scale in 1924. The system distinguishes four crown storeys: the predominating crown storey, dominated crown storey, emergent trees and undergrowth. Into the predominating storeys belong dominant trees and co-dominant trees, and into the dominated storeys the intermediate and ground trees. The trees in all the storeys can be divided in to normal trees with well-formed crown and stem, trees with defectively developed crown, trees with defective stem, and injured and diseased trees. The article describes different thinning methods (cleaning thinning, selective thinning from below, selective thinning from above, increment felling, freeing felling) using the tree-classification.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7250, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1929). Ihminen luonnon ja luontonsa hyötyeksponentin kohottajana - kulttuuri-ihminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 37 article id 7250. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7250
English title: By raising the degree of utilizing his external and internal nature man becomes the cultured person.
English keywords: natural resources; culture

Man’s existence on the earth depends on his ability to make use of the space, time, material and energy provided for him by Nature. The more able a nation is to increase the utilization of these resources, the higher is the culture and the standard of life in the nation.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7249, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1929). Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Wesens der Waldwirtschaft. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 36 article id 7249. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7249
  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7248, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1929). Valtion metsätulot kunnallisverotuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 35 article id 7248. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7248
English title: Forestry income in the municipal taxation.

In 1926 the state of Finland payed taxes to the local municipalities from a half of the net returns the state forest and state owned wood manufacturing industry produced. The taxes payed by the forest administration to the municipalities totaled 4.75 million Finnish marks. The state forests are located mostly in Northern Finland, thus the relative amount of municipalities that get taxes from the state forestry were higher in the north. The municipalities that benefited most from the tax revenues from the state were Savukoski, Pudasjärvi, Suojärvi, Rovaniemi, Taivalkoski, Kuhmoniemi, Turtola, Pielisjärvi, Ilomantsi, Korpiselkä and Suistamo. About half of the municipalities (264) got tax revenues from state forestry. However, if this tax revenue was removed, it would raise local tax rate in relatively few municipalities. it has been proposed that state should pay taxes from the state forests on the same principles as the private forests. To move to area based taxation in the state forests would, however, increase the taxation of the state five-fold. The taxes from the state forests are not appropriate way to support the poorest municipalities. Better suited would be, for instance, state subsidies. Therefore, the taxes payed from the state forestry to municipalities should be abandoned.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7247, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1929). Über die Fähigkeit der Bäume sich gegen Sturmgefahr zu schützen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 34 article id 7247. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7247
  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7246, category Article
K. Kirstein. (1929). Lettlands Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 33 article id 7246. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7246
  • Kirstein, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7245, category Article
Erik Lönnroth. (1929). Theoretisches über den Volumzuwachs und -abgang des Waldbestandes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 32 article id 7245. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7245
  • Lönnroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7243, category Article
Franz Heske. (1929). Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Waldzonen des Westhimalaya. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 30 article id 7243. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7243
  • Heske, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7242, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1929). Beobachtungen über die Beziehungen zwischen der Grundwassertiefe und dem Waldwachstum auf einem kanalisierten Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 29 article id 7242. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7242
  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7241, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1929). Über die Möglichkeit einer Bonitierung der Waldstandorte mit Hilfe von Bodenuntersuchungen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 28 article id 7241. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7241
  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7240, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1929). Kontusaaren tervalepikkö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 27 article id 7240. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7240
English title: Common alder forest in Kontusaari.
English keywords: Alnus incana; productivity

The aim of the study was to determine the value of common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) in forestry by studying an unusually large alder forest in Kontusaari, an island of the size of 75 hectares in the Southern Finland. The forest is grass-herb forest site type. The coastline of the island is partly flooded. Wood has been harvested mainly for fuel wood. The stands have regenerated easily from stump shoots. The annual volume growth is slightly higher than what would be in Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) Karst.) or Betula sp. stands, estimated based on growth and yield tables made by Ilvessalo. The site is well suited for common alder, and it is difficult to judge what the yield would be for other species on the site.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7239, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1929). Pekkalan kartanon metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 26 article id 7239. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7239
English title: Forestry in the Pekkala estate.

The article is a review on the history of forestry in Pekkala estate, a private woodland estate in Ruovesi in Southern Finland. The estate had 7,300 hectares of land in 1929, of which 500 hectares were agricultural lands. It was owned by the Aminoff family since 1822.

The household wood harvesting of the tenants was considered a problem until the farms of the tenants (crofters) became independent in 1921, when the farms of the tenants were parceled out from the main estate. The shifting cultivation of tenants was banned already in 1824. Demand of wood was low until 1870s. in 1865 the freeing of regulation of sawmills increased the demand of wood in Finland, and gave start to significant timber sales in Pekkala estate. The first forest officers were hired in the estate at the time. The first guidelines of forest management for the estate were compiled in 1912, and the first survey of the forests was made in 1916, and repeated in 1922 and 1926. The fellings were planned in consideration of the growth of the forests.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7238, category Article
J. Keränen. (1929). Blitzschlag als Zünder der Waldbrände im nördlichen Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 25 article id 7238. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7238
  • Keränen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7237, category Article
A. Oppermann. (1929). De danske skovlove og deres historie. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 24 article id 7237. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7237
  • Oppermann, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7236, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1929). Können die südfinnischen Seen vermittels der umgebenden Vegetation und Flora bonitiert werden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 23 article id 7236. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7236
  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7235, category Article
Andr. Teikmanis. (1929). Lettlands Wälder und Holzexport. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 22 article id 7235. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7235
  • Teikmanis, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7234, category Article
Fr. Jentsch. (1929). Wandlungen : forstwirtschaftspolitische Skizze. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 21 article id 7234. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7234
  • Jentsch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7233, category Article
Nils Schager. (1929). Nordsveriges skogspolitiska problem. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 20 article id 7233. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7233
  • Schager, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7232, category Article
Edvard Wibeck. (1929). Erwägungen bei Wahl von Kulturmethoden in der schwedischen Nadelwaldwirtschaft. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 19 article id 7232. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7232
  • Wibeck, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7231, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1929). Huomioita männyn ja kuusen pituuskehityksen "vuotuisesta" ja vuorokautisesta jaksosta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 18 article id 7231. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7231
English title: Observations on annual and daily cycles in the height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

The height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were observed in Korkeakoski and Evo in Southern Finland in 1925-1928. The growth was slow in the beginning of the growing season, increased after that to decrease again towards the end of the growing season. The height growth begun in May, reached the fastest growth rates in June, and ended in June-July. According to the earlier studies, the length of the height growth of Scots pine is dependent on the temperature of the previous summer. This study showed that warm temperatures of the same summer promote height growth, and low temperatures slow it down. Also the daily growth fluctuates, being highest during the afternoon and slowest during the early morning. The daily growth is dependent on temperature.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) begin the height growth in average 9 days later than Scots pine. Compared to pine, the speed of growth in spruce decreases slower towards the late summer.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7230, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1929). Die Bestände und die ökologischen Horizontalschichten der Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 17 article id 7230. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7230
  • Kujala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7229, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1929). Über die Dicke der Torfschicht und die Neigungsverhältnisse der Mooroberfläche auf verschiedenen Moortypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 16 article id 7229. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7229
  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7228, category Article
Agnar Barth. (1929). Skjermforyngelsen i produksjonsökonomisk belysning. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 15 article id 7228. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7228
  • Barth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7227, category Article
D. Fehér. (1929). Die Biologie des Waldbodens und ihre physiologische Bedeutung im Leben des Waldes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 14 article id 7227. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7227
  • Fehér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7226, category Article
W. Sukatschew. (1929). Betula Cajanderii sp.n. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 13 article id 7226. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7226
  • Sukatschew, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7225, category Article
A. E. Osmaston. (1929). On the forest types in India. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 12 article id 7225. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7225

Forest site type classification based on the vegetation has not been developed in India. The classifications made by forest officers have been based on the upper storeys of trees. Shrubs have been used to class such sites where grasses are the dominant species. However, some observers in India have used grass and bamboo species to identify sites suitable on unsuitable for certain valuable tree species. In Burma, some bamboo species have been noticed to be good indicators for sites suitable or unsuitable for teak (Tectona grandis L. f.). Studies in the western sub-Himalayan area suggest that certain grasses could be used as indicators for sites suitable for sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.). Grasses have also been identified as indicators for certain kinds of forests and soils in the area between Ganges and the Jumna.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Osmaston, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7224, category Article
C. H. Bornebusch. (1929). Danmarks skovtyper. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 11 article id 7224. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7224
  • Bornebusch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7223, category Article
L. Wappes. (1929). Die Richtung des heutigen Waldbaues. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 10 article id 7223. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7223
  • Wappes, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7222, category Article
A. D'Alverny. (1929). Tarif de cubage pour le Pin silvestre. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 9 article id 7222. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7222
  • D'Alverny, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7221, category Article
Konrad Rubner. (1929). Die Ziele der mitteleuropäischen Forstwirtschaft. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 8 article id 7221. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7221
  • Rubner, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7220, category Article
T. Heikkilä. (1929). Der forstliche Zinsfuss. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 7 article id 7220. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7220
  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7219, category Article
W. E. A. Hiley. (1929). A financial analysis of a money yield table. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 6 article id 7219. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7219

The aim of the study was to compare the theories of Soil Rental and Forest Rental. There is a controversy between the theories that is associated to the issues of length of rotation and grade of thinning. For the basis of the analysis was chosen Schwappach’s money yield table for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Quality II, published in 1908. Based on the table was calculated the financial yield, the net annual income from a normal forest managed on various rotations, the capital value, and the net income expressed as the rate of interest on the capital value. According to the study, it is the rotation at which any money invested in lengthening the rotation still further, would yield no return. In the case of Scots pine, the highest income is achieved approximately with a rotation of 140 years, and the income per hectares would decrease if longer rotations were used, though the capital invested would increase.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Hiley, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7218, category Article
John W. Harshberger. (1929). The forests of the Pacific coasts of British Columbia and Southeastern Alaska. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 5 article id 7218. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7218

The vegetation in the Pacific coasts of British Columbia and Southeastern Alaska resemble the vegetation in the northern Fennoscandia. The national forests have been divided in two parts: Tongass and Chugach national forests. Both of the forests are fairly uniform in their vegetation. The forests have few coniferous tree species as the dominant species from south to north, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière) and western hemloch (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). It is difficult to distinguish forest site types, but it is probable that the forest lands in Alaska and British Columbia could be delimited to similar forest site types as professor Cajander established in Finland.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Harshberger, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7217, category Article
Bunzo Hayata. (1929). Succession in the vegetation of Mt. Fuji. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 7217. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7217

­In different altitudes of the Mount Fuji in Japan occur succession of different tree species. For instance, at an altitude of 2,000 meters are pure stands of Tsuga diversifolia (Maxim.), under which is generally found young trees of Abies veitchii (Lindl.), but not of Tsuga. Abies veitchii is in its turn replaced perhaps with Larix sp. The succession of the forests of the volcano have reached maturity, which is not the case in the east–north-east flank of the mountain, where the Hōei eruption destroyed all vegetation in 1707. The vegetation had not revived even by the 1920s. The Hōei eruption site is compared to the much faster return of vegetation in mount Krakatau in the warmer tropical region. The succession of forests in the other parts of the mountain is described in detail. Finally, a succession theory is proposed that is opposed to the natural selection theory. The theory suggests that there is an Innermost Factor that controls the plant succession. According to the theory, every species, every formation, should die its natural death owing to the Innermost Factor.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Hayata, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7216, category Article
L. Cockayne. (1929). Hybridism in the forests of New Zealand. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 3 article id 7216. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7216

The article gives examples of hybridization of forest tree and shrub species in the forests of New Zealand. According to the article, many of the 498 vascular plant species in the forest communities of the New Zealand region must be excluded from the standpoint of hybridism, because they belong either to genera of one species or are unable to cross owing to geographical or biological isolation. The hybrids are in most cases jordanons which cross, and may be more or less distantly related or closely related. The hybrids occur usually in polymorphic groups. Most of the hybrids in New Zealand are fertile. The hybrids can affect the forest communities in two ways; by effecting their composition or their structure. The article includes a list of hybrid groups.

Jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Cockayne, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7215, category Article
Mark L. Anderson. (1929). Forest types in Scotland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 2 article id 7215. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7215

The primeval forests of Scotland were deforested in the Lowlands by the end of 1500th century, and in the end of the 1800th century also the best forests of the more inaccessible Highlands were exploited. The 1800th century witnessed an outburst of afforestation among the private land owners. With help of nursery work and use of exotic species, the work was successful. Silviculture of Scotland would benefit of a reliable method of site classification. The complexity of the geology and topography, and the lack of mature natural stands complicate the establish a forest type classification similar to the one Prof. Cajander has evolved in Finland. The aim is to establish forest site types which include similar types as in Finland, with possibly additional types in the grass-herb series.

Jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Anderson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7214, category Article
R. S. Troup. (1929). Gregariousness among trees. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 1 article id 7214. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7214

Severe climatic conditions promote gregariousness, because the number of species capable of surviving is small. Thus, it its more common in cold or arid regions. For instance, sands and gravels that are poor in nutrients, and subject to drying, are often characterized by pure crops of pine, whose seedlings are comparatively drought resistant. One example of gregariousness due to favorable conditions of seedlings, seed-dispersal and germination is birch. It produces seed abundantly from an early age, and the light seeds are dispersed widely by the wind. Gregariousness can also be induced by conditions which destroy all species except those specially adapted to resist extermination. One example of this is annual fires. A species may be gregarious in some conditions and sporadic in others.

  • Troup, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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