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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 | 1934

Category: Article

article id 7313, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Männyn kääpiöversojen ja kasvainten välisistä suhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 36 article id 7313. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7313
English title: The relations between main and short shoots of Scots pine.
English keywords: needle; short shoot

The number of short shoots and the quality of the shoots and needles in 19 shoots of 15 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was measured. Usually Scots pine short shoots have two needles. Three-needle short shoots were found in all sample shoots but one. They were most common in fast-growing trees and the shoots in the main stem. One-needle short shoots were relatively rare. In most cases the second needle had withered. The length of the needles was 19‒80 mm, and most common lengths were 30‒50 mm. The width of the needles was in average 0.5‒1.94 mm. There was correlation between the length of the shoot and the length of the needles.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7312, category Article
V. R. Toijala. (1934). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen ja valvonta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 35 article id 7312. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7312
English title: Promotion and supervision of private forestry in Finland.

The state of Finland controls the private forestry by legislation and by promoting forest management. The initial reason for regulating the private forestry in the 1600s was to prevent forest devastation and the decrease of the forest resources in the country. The Private Forest Act came into effect in 1929. It required that regeneration of the forest is cared for after fellings and that an announcement is given of planned fellings. There are several organizations to promote private forestry and advice the private forest owners, for instance, District Forest Boards, Central Forestry Association Tapio and the Forest Management Associations. It is concluded that the Private Forest Act and the organizations have fulfilled their objectives.

  • Toijala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7311, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1934). Metsäojien mittojen ja muodon muuttumisesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 34 article id 7311. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7311
English title: Changing of dimensions and form of forest ditches after the drainage in Finland.

The aim of the study was to investigate how the drain network and dimensions of ditches change after the drainage. The studied drained peatlands were situated in the municipalities of Parkano and Virrat in Central Finland. The ditches were in average 15 and 17 years old. The depth and width in the surface of the peatland were in average one quarter smaller than after the drainage. The width at the bottom of the ditch has, however, almost doubled. Peat had sunken more in peatlands with thick peat layer and higher humidity. Sinking of peat influenced the depth of the ditches. The volume of the ditches decreased about 30%. The decrease of the ditches by the drying and sinking of the peat was greater than the increase caused by erosion.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7310, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1934). Havaintoja eräitten yksityistilojen metsätaloudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 33 article id 7310. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7310
English title: Observations on forestry in private farms in Finland.

Private forests account for about 2/3 of the growth of the forests in Finland, but little is known about the economy of forestry in private farms. The study analyses the forestry in private farms using accounting data of farms, collected in a survey of profitability in agriculture that was compiled by the Board of Agriculture. The sample of 18 farms represent farms where the use of forests was sustainable. The accounting data was complemented by survey of forest recourses in the farms. The typical forest site type is Myrtillus type, and the average growing stock is 96‒136 m3/ha which is above the average of the private forests. Fellings exceeded the growth of the forests in some farms, but this was compensated by uncommonly large forest resources. In average, growth exceeded the fellings. Timber accounted for most of the sales, while fuel wood sales exceeded the pulpwood sales. The significance of thinning seems not be fully understood in the farms. Especially standing sales of timber was important for the economy of the farms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7309, category Article
I. Lassila. (1934). Kestävyys puun laadun tunnuksena. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 32 article id 7309. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7309
English title: Durability as indication of wood quality.
Original keywords: puuaine; lujuus; kestävyys; puun laatu
English keywords: wood; timber; strength; durability

The article reviews the change in how the most sufficient wood material was chosen for different uses. The craftsmen used different characteristics to determine the quality of wood, for instance, tree species, location in the stem, whether it was sapwood or heartwood etc. Scientifically, the quality of the wood has been described by, for instance, specific gravity, bending strength and compressive strength. Durability would, however, be better attribute than strength to describe the quality of wood, because circumstances, like humidity and temperature can change where the wood is used. The article discusses further the development of durability indexes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7308, category Article
U. Metsänheimo. (1934). Havaintoja metsäojituksen kivitöistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 31 article id 7308. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7308
English title: Observations on the removal of stones in drain digging of peatlands.

Stones can be removed in drain digging of peatlands by using explosives or hoisting devices. The report is based on observations, and time and motion studies on drainage sites in the state forests in Northern Finland in 1931‒1933. Dynamite has been previously the most common explosive used in drainage sites. The new explosives containing potassium chloride proved to be cheaper, and safer to handle and transport than dynamite. According to the time and motion studies, the use of hoisting devices to lift stones that are removable, was significantly cheaper than explosives.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsänheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7307, category Article
Erik Lönnroth. (1934). Zur Frage der Volumengeraden des Waldbestandes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 30 article id 7307. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7307
  • Lönnroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7306, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1934). Sahatukkien teko- ja ajopalkat todellista työvaikeutta vastaaviksi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 29 article id 7306. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7306
English title: Felling and hauling wages that correspond the actual requirements of the work.

Forest work in Finland has generally been paid by the job. The wages in 1930s were based on variable measuring units and principles in different parts of the country. The rates did not often take into account how difficult the individual stands are to harvest. The studies have shown that the productivity of logging depends on size of the stems, density of the stand, branchiness of the trees, terrain and depth of snow cover. The article suggests a wage system which takes into account the differences of the cutting areas.

Wages of felling and hauling logs that are payed per the trunk or cubic meter should be adjusted so that the earnings of an employee depends not on the quality of the stand. The quality of the stand influences the stumpage price of the wood, because of the versatile harvesting costs. If the demands of the job in a challenging stand are not compensated for the workers, the higher harvesting costs are inequitably balanced by lowering the wages of the forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7305, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1934). Maanjakotoimituksessa syntyvien palstojen muodosta metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 28 article id 7305. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7305
English title: Conditions of forestry in land plots formed in the parceling of land.

The shape of land lots formed in parceling of land has been affected by many variables. It is an important economic factor when the land is used in forestry or agriculture. The report concentrates on the larger farms with relatively large forest holdings. In the general parceling of the land that started in the middle of 1700s, the allotted plots were often long and narrow, and the width of the plot could be 20‒50 meters. Later these farms may have been further parceled.

Narrow plots are difficult to manage from the forestry point of view. For example, it is not possible to build a forest road in the plot, and wood harvesting is difficult. To use natural regeneration for a specific tree species is impossible, because the seed trees in the adjacent plot are so near. When the boundaries are long and the properties narrow, there is bigger risk for felling trees on the land of the neighbour. The optimal form for a plot is rectangle which is 3‒6 times longer than its width. Local examples of parceling and the effects of the shape of the plots are given in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7304, category Article
Uunio Saalas. (1934). Suomalaisista hyönteisnimistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 27 article id 7304. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7304
English title: The Finnish nomenclature of insects.
English keywords: nomenclature; forest insects

The need for standard Finnish names for the harmful or beneficial insects in agriculture rose in the 1930s, and a committee was formed in 1932 to work out nomenclature for the insect species. In 1933, a similar committee was formed to compile a nomenclature for forest insects. The old popular names, if such names existed, were used primarily. Some of the insects had been named also in the earlier literature, even if all the names had not been taken in common use. Some names were translated from the scientific names. Emphasis was given to the habits or habitats of the insect. An attempt was made to shorten the former names if needed.

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  • Saalas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7303, category Article
J. Keränen. (1934). Lämpöoloista puiden ja eräiden pensaiden kasvupaikkojen pohjoisilla rajoilla Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 26 article id 7303. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7303
English title: Thermal conditions in the northern limits of some tree species and bushes in Finland.

The article discusses the thermal conditions in the northern limits of trees and some bushes in Finland. Temperature is the most important limiting factor for distribution of plant species. Precipitation variations, however, are small in Finland. The article lists the main features of thermal conditions during the different seasons in different parts of Finland. The northern limits and the thermal condition of the area are described for the following species: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), mezereon, buckthorn, common alder, linden, elm, maple, hazel, ash, oak, hybrid mountain ash, yew and Swedish whitebeam.

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  • Keränen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7302, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1934). Karsimisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 25 article id 7302. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7302
English title: The silvicultural influences of pruning.

Pruning growing trees influences tree growth and value of the wood and yield of timber of the stand. Pruning living branches create open wounds on the stems that can risk the growth of tree species that are vulnerable to injuries. For instance, pruning has been shown to cause decay in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), while Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) can quickly heal over the branch scars. Pruning of living branches reduces the crown, the effect of which remains small if only the lowest branches are pruned. Pruning of dry branches has little effect on the health of the tree. The main objective of pruning is to improve the quality of timber. Knottiness decreases strength and appearance of timber. Pruning increases the yield of knot-free sapwood, which is especially valuable in veneer timber. Pruning is, therefore, at present most suitable for birch and aspen which are used in veneer industry. In both species pruning should be directed mainly to dry branches.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7301, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1934). Valtionmetsien työtarjonnasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 24 article id 7301. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7301
English title: Employment in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a report of the ways the state forests could be used to improve employment, requested by the State Unemployment Council. Production of the state forests of Finland has been insufficient, because the fellings have not taken account silvicultural needs, and forest management has not previously received proper funding. For instance, the production and wood resources in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests in Southern Finland were 2/3 of what they could be if the forests were in natural state. More efficient forest management is necessary to ensure the sustainable wood production of the state forests, and that could consequently offer work opportunities. The tasks needed to improve productivity of the state forests, and the work opportunities they can give are listed. Silviculture, drainage of peatlands, wood harvesting and transport, marking timber for fellings, floating, building forest roads and administrative and planning work could increase the supply of work to 8.6 million man-days and 1.6 horse-days in the state forests, mainly in wood harvesting and transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7300, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1934). Metsänviljelysmenetelmiä koskevista tutkimuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 23 article id 7300. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7300
English title: Research on forest regeneration methods.

The article is a review on the research about forest regeneration in Finland, executed in the Forest Research Institute. The climate affects the results of different regeneration methods. Thus, sample plots have been established in different parts of the country. In 1933 there was a total of 386 sample plots around the country. To compare the effect of weather conditions in the regeneration, sample plots have been established in successive years. Other conditions that affect forest regeneration are soil, forest site type, tree species, time from the felling of the stand, and tending of the seedling stand. Of the 386 sample plots 245 were planting experiments and 141 sowing experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7299, category Article
Eino Hartikainen. (1934). Sahatavaramme kotimarkkinat v. 1932. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 22 article id 7299. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7299
English title: Domestic trade of saw timber in 1932.
Original keywords: sahatavara; myynti; tuotanto; kotimarkkinat
English keywords: domestic trade; home market

A survey was conducted to investigate the domestic trade of saw timber in Finland in 1932. The inquiry complemented the investigation of consumption of wood made at the same time. In 1932 there were 383 sawmills in Finland, the total production of which was 814,630 std (1 std = 4.672 m3). Only 12.9% of the production was sold in the home market. Of the domestic sales, the share of costal sawmills was 25.7% and the inland sawmills 74.3%. The domestic sales were proportionally largest (55.5%) in the smallest sawmills, and they decreased gradually as the production of the sawmill increased. Comparatively more of the sawn timber of birch is sold in the domestic market than of pine or spruce. The depression of the building trade that begun in 1930 affected the trade still in 1932.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hartikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7298, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1934). Die Entwicklung des Waldbestandes und die Wachstumsfaktoren. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 21 article id 7298. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7298
  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7297, category Article
A. L. Backman. (1934). Om den Åländska skogens förhistoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 20 article id 7297. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7297
  • Backman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7296, category Article
T. Rancken. (1934). Erfarenheter om asken som skogsträd i Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 19 article id 7296. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7296
  • Rancken, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7295, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1934). Lounais-Suomen metsien puulajihistoriasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 18 article id 7295. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7295
English title: The history of tree species in southwest Finland.

Pollen analysis has given information on development of the tree species composition after the ice age, but this kind of studies have not been published in Finland. In this study, pollen analysis was performed in five peatlands in the southwest Finland. According to the analysis, the forests of the area have had similar tree species composition for many thousands of years. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been the dominant species as long as there has been Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in the area. Norway spruce seems to have arrived about 4,500 years ago. It increased slowly in the beginning, and after reaching a maximum has been slowly decreasing. Before spruce arrived, Betula sp. was more abundant, and seemed to be the dominant tree species in some places. Traces of fire in the peat layers indicate that forest fires have been common before people arrived in the area, and may have beneficial to birch. Like Betula sp., also Alnus sp. were more common before spruce arrived. Also pollen of other broadleaved species, for example, Tilia sp., Ulmus sp. and Corylus could be found. However, Quercus pollen was not found. The paludification of the peatlands had begun at different times which indicates that there has not been a common cause for the development of the peatlands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7294, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1934). Tutkimuksia karjan vaikutuksesta hakkausalojen kasvillisuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 17 article id 7294. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7294
English title: Studies on influence of grazing on the vegetation of cutting areas.

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of grazing of the cutting areas to the ground vegetation and regeneration of spruce. The cutting areas could be divided into two kinds of areas based on the vegetation. Hillocks were drier and poorer than other parts of the cutting areas. Their vegetation did suffer less from grazing than the other parts of the cutting areas. The shade-loving plant species decreased, but as the poorer sites have less edible plants, cattle caused less damage than in the better sites. The even spaces between the hillocks had both positive and negative changes. Cattle transport seeds, tile and fertilize the soil, promote paludification, and decrease competition by the primary species like large grasses. This is beneficial to new species. Grazing is directed to large grass species like Calamagrostis. Those species that cattle reject, become more abundant. Stamping damages especially shallow rooted species and perennial species, like Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Larger tree seedlings may get injuries in the stem.

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  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7293, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1934). Psykoteknilliset kokeet metsäammattimiesten valinnassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 16 article id 7293. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7293
English title: Planning psychological exams to employ forest professionals.

A psychological and technical test was planned for selecting students to Forestry School of Tuomarniemi in Finland. This was the first attempt to use psychological and technological tests to choose forest professionals in the country. The entrance examination of the forestry school included tests for knowledge about forest work, estimation of distance and dimensions of a tree, dexterity and memory. The article suggests that similar test should be generally used in forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7292, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1934). Kustannuksista metsätalouden tuloslaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 15 article id 7292. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7292
English title: The placing of expenses in the balance sheet of forest management.

The term ‘expenses’ is in forestry insufficiently defined, and its use in the balance sheet of forest management is unclear. In dynamic balance theory the actual working expenses and capital expenditure are separated. The article discusses what should be considered working expenses and what capital expenditure when dealing with certain costs of the forest management, for example costs of administration, cultivation of forests, log-floating channels, and roads and drainage of peatlands.

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  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7291, category Article
Paul Wallden. (1934). Tutkimuksia koivupuun anatoomisen rakenteen ja teknillisten ominaisuuksien keskinäisestä riippuvuudesta solumittauksien perusteella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 14 article id 7291. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7291
English title: Studies on relationship between anatomical structure and technical properties of birch wood.

Birch wood is used widely in wooden structures where mechanical strength is needed. The aim of the research was to study the influence of the relative share of mechanically weak tracheids, and length of the wood fibers on specific gravity and bending strength of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) wood. According to the results, the strength of wood is strongly dependent on the relative share of tracheids, and length of the libriform cells. The strength of the wood increases when the share of tracheids decreases and the length of libriform cells increases. The specific gravity can be used as an indication of the strength of wood, especially if it is possible to analyze the structure of the wood.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wallden, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7290, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1934). Fennoskandian koivuvyöhykkeen eläinmaantieteellisestä merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 13 article id 7290. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7290
English title: The zoogeographical significance of the birch zone in Fennoscandia.

The subarctic-subalpine mountain birch forest zone discerns Fennoscandia from other northern regions. The zone offers protection against wind to animal life, protects soil from evaporation and increases humidity. The article reviews distribution of vertebrate and butterfly species in the birch forest zone. There are no vertebrates that occur solely in the birch forest zone, and only few live mostly in the zone. Many species live either both on the birch forest zone and the treeless fell area above it, or in the birch forest zone and coniferous zone below it. Similarly, no butterflies occur only in the birch forest zone, but the zone is the main habitat for some species. Consequently, the subarctic-subalpine birch forest zone cannot be considered to be an independent ecozone but a transitional zone between regio silvatica and regio arctica that is nearer to the northern coniferous zone than the fell region

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  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7289, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1934). Über die Stockfäule der Nadelwälder Nord-Suomis (-Finnlands). Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 12 article id 7289. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7289
  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7288, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1934). Metsä- ja suotyyppien esiintymisen keskinäisestä suhteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 11 article id 7288. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7288
English title: The mutual relation between the occurrence of forest site types and swamp types.
English keywords: paludification; peatland; fertility

The relation between the occurrence of forest site types and swamp types was studied using data collected in the national line survey of Finnish forests carried out in 1921‒1924. The majority of peatlands in Finland has been formed by forest land becoming paludificated. When the peat layer is thin, the fertility of the peatland depends on the underlying mineral soil, consequently, good swamp types occur on fertile subsoil and poor types on poor subsoil. When the peat layer becomes thicker, the relationship weakens. The surrounding mineral soils influence the quality of the peatland by the runoff from the catchment area. The direct comparison of forest site and swamp types is not possible, because for one forest site type there are several swamp types that have different levels of humidity. According to the study, a very distinct mutual relation can be seen between occurrence of forest site types and swamp types.

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  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7287, category Article
Erkki K. Cajander. (1934). Havaintoja eräällä myrskytuhoalueella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 10 article id 7287. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7287
English title: Observations in a storm damage area.

A big storm hit Finland in 12.10.1933, and caused forest damages especially in the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Baltic Sea, and in the eastern part of the country. In these areas the wind felled about 75,000‒85,000 m3 timber trees in the state lands. The extent of the wind damage was measured in forest area of 1,500 hectares in Lapinjärvi in Southern Finland. The wind had felled 42% of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 70% of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 44% of the Betula sp. trees. Thus, Norway spruce had been most susceptible for wind damage. That extensive damages in Norway spruce seed tree stands risk the regeneration in the area. Natural regeneration of Norway spruce using seed trees may, therefore, be questioned. The seed tree areas on hills, and especially hollows next to the hills were susceptible for wind damage. A denser border stand protects sparsely stocked seed tree area. The damages were also smaller in older seed tree areas, where the trees and ground vegetation had had time to recover after the felling. The felled spruce and birch trees had often stem rot.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7286, category Article
Matti Jalava. (1934). Havaintoja puun aseman vaikutuksesta puun ominaisuuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 9 article id 7286. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7286
English title: Influence of the position of a tree in the stand upon the properties of the wood.

The growth of a tree is influenced by inherited properties and external circumstances, including climate, soil, the position of the tree in the stand, and the position of the wood in the stem. The tree species have optimum climate and optimum conditions. The aim of this study was to determine if the summerwood content of the wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is dependent on the rate of growth of the tree. Comparing the position of the sample trees in the stand, it seems that the position of the tree and the size of its crown influences strongly the quality of the wood. In a dense stand the summerwood content was higher in the trees that had small crowns. Thinning of the stand decreased the difference in summerwood content of the trees.

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  • Jalava, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

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  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7284, category Article
K. Linkola. (1934). Die Flatterulme (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in der Gegend des Vanajavesisees. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 7 article id 7284. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7284
  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7283, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1934). Über entomologische Analysen und ihre Anwendung. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 6 article id 7283. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7283
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7282, category Article
Vilho A. Pesola. (1934). Die Waldvegetation feuchten Geländes in N-Kuusamo und SE-Kuolajärvi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 5 article id 7282. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7282
  • Pesola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7281, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1934). Sotilaiden osanotto metsänviljelystyöhön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 7281. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7281
English title: The participation of troops in silvicultural work.
Original keywords: metsätyö; armeija; sotilas; istutus; kylvö
English keywords: forest work; army; solder; planting; sowing

Following the example of Norway, which was the first nation to employ regular troops in silvicultural work, sowing and planting courses were organized for the Finnish troops in 1931. The initiative was taken by the Forestry Instruction Bureau, and the work was organized by the forestry committees. During three years, total of 8,189 men was involved in the work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7280, category Article
Gust. Komppa. (1934). Zur Kenntnis der Nadelöle einiger in Finnland gewachsener ausländischer Nadelhölzer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 7280. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7280
  • Komppa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7279, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1934). Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustyön kehittäminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 7279. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7279
English title: Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustyön kehittäminen.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus

The article outlines the further development of forest research work in Finland. It was realized from the beginning that forest sciences in Finland should be grounded on own work, relying on other sciences that had similar objectives. For instance, silvicultural sciences can benefit from phytogeography, plant ecology and soil sciences.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7278, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Neljännesvuosisata Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toimintaa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 7278. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7278
English title: A quarter of a century with the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences.

The Finnish Society of Forest Sciences was established in 1908 to promote forest research in the country. It was deemed that the progress of Finnish forestry required forest research adapted to the local conditions. The article describes the establishment, first years of the society and the consolidation of its role and activities. The operation, finances and the society is described.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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