Current issue: 51(3)
Under compilation: 51(4)
Forestry has been almost the sole source of employment during winter in the forested areas of Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of men and horses working in logging and haulage in different times of year in 1933‒1934. The felling and haulage of household timber was not included in the study. The amount of work days was calculated using the statistics of wood consumption. The work days in logging was 10.0 million days in 1933 and 11.9 million days in 1934. Accordingly, approximately 3.6 million work days was done in horse-haulage in 1933 and 4.3 million in 1934. The forest companies and Metsähallitus (Forest Service) employed most employees in wood harvesting in January‒March, in average 14,300‒25,700 men and 3,300‒9,300 horses per month. The number of employees was lowest in August.
In floating, 1 million work days was done in 1934 and 1,1 million in 1934. Most employees were hired in April‒June. Floating is an important source of employment for the landless people when the fellings stop in the spring. The farmers working in wood harvesting can move to work in their farms.
Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is a species that becomes in Finland over time the dominant species in the sites that are suitable for it. The reason that it covers only a quarter of the forest areas in Finland depends mainly on forest fires. The aim of this review was to discuss the biological factors that affect competition between Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Especially important is the ability to regenerate and grow past seedling stage. There does not seem to be significant differences in the number of good seed and seedling years of the species. Spruce regenerates better on moss covered forest floor than pine. On the other hand, pine seedlings grow faster than spruce seedlings, and tolerate better dry conditions. Consequently, one of the defining biological differences is that Norway spruce needs more humid conditions than Scots pine. Spruce is shown to have greater transpiration than pine. Spruce also has higher site requirements, however, growing as undergrowth, it seems to be better able to compete of the nutrients with the larger trees than pine. It also tolerates shading better. Spruce is less frost tolerant than pine.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
The aim of the study was to explain the regression between the cubic content of the trunk of a tree and of logs cut from the trunk. The minimum size of trunk that can be used to saw logs has been 18 feet long and 5″ of top diameter in Finland (in 1930s). The average length of logs is 16‒18 feet. The data of this study was collected in seven areas around Finland. The results show that there is regression between the volume of the trunk, the volume and the logs cut from the trunk and the number of logs. Consequently, it is possible to determine the average regression between the trunk and log sizes for forest technical purposes. The regression varies in different parts of the country due to varying growth condition of the trees and different age classes. It is probable that the figures have to be re-examined in the future.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The aim of the study was to determine how different factors in the stand influence working efficiency in felling. In the eight cutting areas in Northern Finland was harvested a total of 745,200 cubic feet of timber. The factors recorded from the cutting areas were the number of stems per hectare, volume of the stems, quality of the logs (proportion of decayed trees and knottiness of the trees), topography of the site and efficiency of the workers in a team.
The bigger the stems were, the better the result of the workers was. When the size of the stem increased by one cubic ft., the efficiency of the work increased by 2 cubic ft. When knottiness and defects in the stem changed the class describing the quality of a tree by one class, the efficiency decreased by 4.5 cubic ft. The density of the forest affected the time used for loading the timber for hauling. The hauling distance affected the efficiency of the team, which was usually either 2 men and one horse, or 3 men and one horse. If the hauling distance was long, hauling impaired the efficiency. If the distance was short, logging impaired the efficiency of the work. The result show that efficiency of forest work is greatly influenced by the quality of the forest, the trees and the workers.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
Plants assimilate carbon dioxide from the air. Respiration of plants also produce carbon dioxide. Because the carbon dioxide level of the air is only 0.3%, only little carbon dioxide can diffuse in plants. Thus, the carbon dioxide assimilated by the plants is formed mostly in the earth when organic substances are degraded. The article describes a method to measure carbon dioxide level in the air.
The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934. In the meetings of the society were held four presentations which are shortly summarized in the article.