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Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 | 1937

Category: Article

article id 7340, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1938). Puiden vikanaisuuksien vaikutuksesta hakkuutulokseen Perä-Pohjolan havumetsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 7340. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7340
English title: The effect of injuries of the stems to amount of merchantable timber in the northernmost Finland.

The effect of different kinds of injuries in the amount of merchantable timber was studied in 57 sample plots in the northernmost Finland. Without any injuries the yield of timber would have been 72.3% in Scots pine (Pinus sylverstris L.) and 89.9% in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Butting, and removal of parts of the stems due to Injuries decreased the volume by 10.4% in pine and 13.5% in spruce. The main cause for butting of pine was fire wounds, and butt rot in spruce. Also pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum) causes injuries in Scots pine. The better the forest site type, the smaller is the timber discarded due to injuries. In pine 54% and in spruce 53% of the trees and were healthy. The forests in the northernmost Finland are over-mature which increase the occurrence of fire wounds and decay. Thus, forest fire control and the felling or thinning of over-mature stands will improve the quality of the timber in the long run.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7339, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1937). Saimaan vesistön uittoväylät ja uittojen organisaatio niissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 7339. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7339
English title: Floating channels and administration of floating in the Lake Saimaa water system.

The length of drivable water courses in Finland was about 43,800 km in 1936, while the length of the water courses used by the floating associations was 12,467 km. The aim of the survey was to study the volume of timber in private (or separate) floating and co-operative floating operated by the floating associations in Lake Saimaa water system, and how floating was administrated in the area.

According to the study, the floating channels of the area are in good condition. Floating of timber in rafts is common in Lake Saimaa water system. The proportion of co-operative floating is smaller than in the other major water systems in Finland, and the administration of floating is, therefore, unusual. The reason for this is the nature of the water system, the wood procurement policy of the industry, the disinterest of the private forest owners towards organized floating, and the way the authorities apply the Water Rights Act. The present system is beneficial to the forest companies that float big quantities of timber, but increase of co-operative floating would avail the small and medium industry and floaters, wood selling forest owners and the workforce.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7338, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1937). Tampereen kaupungin ja sen lähiympäristön koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 7338. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7338
English title: Ornamental trees and shrubs in city of Tampere and the surrounding areas.
English keywords: park; garden; exotic species; shrub; fruit tree

The article is a report of the exotic tree and shrub species found in major parks and gardens in the city of Tampere, in Southern Finland, and the surrounding areas, including fruit trees and berry bushes. The survey of species was conducted in 1934-1935. There was a total of 221 tree and shrub species in the 245 parks and gardens of the city. Exotic species was found 193, of which 37 was introduced only recently. The frequency of 199 species in Tampere area and the condition of each species is listed. Most common are the native species of the genus Picea, Pinus, Betula, Acer, Prunus and Sorbus. Of the exotic species only Malus pumila (Mill.) is commonly cultivated. Relatively common are Ulmus montana (With.), Tilia cordata (Mill.) and Fraxinus excelsior (L.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7337, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1937). Vakuutetuissa metsissä vuosina 1925-34 sattuneista kuloista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 2 article id 7337. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7337
English title: Forest fires in the insured forests in Finland in 1925-1934.
Original keywords: metsäpalo; metsäpalovakuutus; kulo
English keywords: forest fire insucance

Total of 1,305 forest fires was ignited in 1925-1934 in the forests insured by the Metsänomistajain Keskinäinen Metsäpaloapuyhdistys (The Forest Owners' Mutual Forest Fire Insurance Company and the Keskinäinen Vakuutusyhtiö Sampo (The Sampo Mutual Insurance Company). The variation was large: from 34 fires in 1928 to 362 fires in 1933. The forest fires were most abundant in the county of Oulu and Häme. The average size of the burned areas varied from 2.4 hectares to 30.5 hectares. The area of forests that had forest fire insurance increased steadily from 2.2 million hectares in 1925 to 3,7 million hectares in 1934.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7336, category Article
R. Sarvas. (1937). Kuloalojen luontaisesta metsittymisestä : Pohjois-Suomen kuivilla kankailla suoritettu metsäbiologinen tutkielma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 7336. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7336
English title: Natural regeneration of burned areas. Forest biological study in dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland.

Natural regeneration has been common in Northern Finland, where forest fires have been usual, and the large areas make artificial regeneration expensive. The regeneration, and for instance tree species composition and density of the stand, cannot been controlled. In Northern Finland there is little demand for Betula sp. which is often abundant in the burnt areas. The unburned forests are generally Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated mixed forests with single Betula sp. trees.

The fire destroys birch for the most part in the Vaccinium site type, but the surviving trees produce enough seeds to regenerate the areas. The largest trees of Scots pine usually survive the fires. Pine has good seed years in the north only every 8th or 10th year. Spruce is totally destroyed in the forest fire and the seedlings grow poorly as primary species. The seedling stands are usually dominated by Scots pine and birch, but birch seedlings grow in batches, and do not hinder growth of pine. The drier Calluna site type stands are dominated by Scots pine. Birch seedlings may be abundant in the beginning, but most of them do not survive. Abundant emergent pine trees prevent the growth of seedlings especially in the dry site types, and they should be thinned to guarantee regeneration. Sowing results are better few years after the fire. The birch seedling should be removed from the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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