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Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 | 1940

Category: Article

article id 7376, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1942). Sateen mittauksia erilaisissa metsiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 23 article id 7376. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7376
  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7375, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1942). Beobachtungen über den Bodenfrost des Winters 1941 - 1942. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 22 article id 7375. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7375
English title: Observations on the soil frost of the winter 1941-1942.
Original keywords: Bodenfrost; Formation
English keywords: soil frost; formation

Soil frost from the winter 1941-1942 was of a special form. To create such a strong soil frost there need to be capillary soil form and long period of permanent and intense cold, meaning minus temperatures.  The frost layer was thicker than normally.

Such a frost causes many problems on the fields and roads when the soil rises because of the frost and then falls unevenly back when the frost melts.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7374, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1942). Eräitä halkosahoilla suoritettujen sahauskokeiden tuloksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 21 article id 7374. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7374
  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7373, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1942). Metsä- ja kielipolitiikkaa puolisen vuosisataa sitten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 20 article id 7373. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7373
  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7372, category Article
Vilho Seppänen. (1942). Sahatukkien teosta aikatutkimuksen valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 19 article id 7372. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7372
  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7371, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1942). Kuusisahapuun teknillisen ja pinokuution välinen suhde sekä sen riippuvaisuus muotoluokasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 18 article id 7371. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7371
  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7370, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1942). Männyn taimien juurien suhtautumisesta emäpuun juuriin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 17 article id 7370. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7370
  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7369, category Article
Eino Saari. (1942). Metsäojitusten yksityistaloudellisen edullisuuden määrääminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 16 article id 7369. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7369
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7368, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1942). J. P. Norrlinin nuoruusvuodet : professori Norrlinin omien muistiinpanojen pohjalla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 15 article id 7368. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7368
  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7367, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1942). Karistuslämmön vaikutuksesta männyn siemenen karisemiseen ja itämiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 14 article id 7367. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7367
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7366, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1942). Metsäretkeilystä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 13 article id 7366. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7366
  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7365, category Article
Eric Appelroth. (1942). Om behovet av periodiskt återkommande inventering av enskilda skogsbruk. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 12 article id 7365. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7365
  • Appelroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7363, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1942). Puuston hakkuuarvosta ja sen määräämisestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 10 article id 7363. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7363
  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7362, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1942). Metsätalouskartaston soveltaminen sotilastarkoituksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 9 article id 7362. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7362
English title: Use of forest maps in military purposes in Finland.

The Second World War revealed some weaknesses that affect also peacetime planning of military defence in Finland. One of the shortages were lack of maps applicable in military purposes in Northern Finland.

The state forests are mainly situated in the north. Consequently, cartographic material of Finnish Forest Service may be modified with little extra work for military purposes. Best suited for the purpose are forestry maps of different forest districts that have scales ranging from 1:20,000 to 1:100,000. In addition, general maps in the scale of 1:100,000 or 1:200,000 are available. The article discusses further the additions that can be made in the maps.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7361, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1942). Siperian lehtikuusen kasvusta sekametsiköissä Evon valtionpuistossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 8 article id 7361. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7361
English title: Growth of Siberian larch in mixed stands in state forests of Evo in Finland.

Of the foreign tree species Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) has the biggest economical potential in Finland. In its natural distribution the species grows mostly in mixed stands in other areas than the core of its range in Siberia, where it grows also in pure stands. However, growth studies have given contradictory results about how Siberian larch can manage competition of different tree species in mixed stands. In this study two-year old Siberian larch seedlings were planted in areas previously sown with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The growth of the trees was measured when the stands were 50 years old.

It appears that the stands, about 3700 larch seedlings per hectare, have originally been too been too dense. In the two thinnings done in the area, larch has probably been favoured, which has resulted in varying mix of pine and spruce. In the 50-year old stands, Siberian larch has developed faster than Scots pine and Norway spruce. Contrary to some previous studies, the results show that Siberian larch can be grown also in mixed stands, but the growth will probably be slower than in pure stands. Best growth is achieved in pure stands that have been planted thinly enough.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7360, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1942). Über die morphologische Deutung des Fichtenzapfens auf Grund eines Fertilisationsfalles. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 7 article id 7360. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7360
English title: Morphologic interpretation of a spruce cone based on fertilization.
Original keywords: Fichte; Zapf; Fertilisation; Morfologie
English keywords: spruce; cone; fertilization; morphology

Article presents some rare cone formations found from a small spruce in region of Punkaharju, Finland. In this case all the scales have developed into perfect, green needle leaves. Instead of a normal scale of a cone there are formations of buds that on the basal part of a cone resemble a normal bud, and hence develop into a branch. On the upper part of the cone formation the bud develops into scale of a cone.

The morphological form of the cones has been interpreted many ways. These anomalies resemble earlier observations and hence support the former theory of inflorescence. According the theory, the scales and scales of a cone are separate leaves, the scale corresponding to one leaf, the scale of a cone corresponding to two leaves. A cone is hence rather to be compared with a branching inflorescence than only one flower.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Kujala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7359, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1942). Muutamia kasvukokeita puuntaimilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 6 article id 7359. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7359
English title: Growth studies on tree seedlings.

The aim of the study was to investigate effect of growth conditions on germination and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Germination of seeds becomes markedly slower as the soil temperature decreases. It seems that low temperatures affect more Norway spruce than Scots pine. When temperature rises, the fresh weight of the seedlings increases more in pine seedlings than in spruce seedlings. Accordingly, lower temperatures affect less the weight growth of spruce seedling than that of pine seedlings.

An experiment testing how root competition affect germination showed that adjacent seedlings decrease germination of seeds more than shading with branches. The effect was strongest on pine and spruce seedlings when the shading tree species was fast growing birch (Betula sp.). On the other hand, shading affected most height growth of birch seedlings. Growing space can vary in relatively large range without it affecting greatly tree growth.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7358, category Article
Arvo Ylinen. (1942). Über den Einfluss des Spätholzanteils und der Rohwichte auf die Festigkeits- und elastischen Eigenschaften des Nadelholzes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 7358. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7358
English title: The effect of the amount of the summer wood on the elastic and tensile properties of coniferous trees.

The dependence of elastic and tensile properties of coniferous trees on the share of summer wood can be presented as linear functions, if the soft wood is considered as a statically indefinite structure. By eliminating the share of summer wood by a certain function presented in the article, the elastic and tensile properties are the linear functions of density.

The functions are proved right by conducting strength tests on pine. Practical implications of the derived functions in rating the quality of wood are also presented.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Ylinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7357, category Article
Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kauppalakuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 7357. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7357
  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7356, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1942). Koivun vesomisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 7356. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7356
English title: Silvicultural usefulness of sprouting of birch.

Birches’ (Betula sp.) ability to grow sprouts is low. The stump grows root collar and stump shoots, but the stump shoots are not proper stump shoots that will grow from the space between wood and bark. The buds are situated very low in the base, even under the ground. In this study, no actual root shoots could be found. Also the bushy alpine birches seem to be formed from stump and root collar shoots.

In Southern Finland silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is more common than downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in dry upland forest sites, while downy birch is common in fresh mineral soil forests and peatlands. In Northern Finland downy birch is the dominant birch species. Of the two species downy birch has markedly better capacity to form stump and root collar shoots both in Northern and Southern Finland. In general, birches grow sprouts much more strongly in Northern Finland.

Growth of the shoots is fastest during the first year after the felling of the parent tree and slows down gradually. The stump shoots may get separated from the stump when the stump decays, and the decay may also spread to the shoots. It is common that the shoots have no own roots, and die along with the stump. The shoots may have own root system or use roots of the parent tree that have stayed alive, in the latter case decay spreads almost always from the stump to the shoot. Whether the tree was felled with axe or saw had no effect on sprouting, probably because the sprouting buds are situated in the base of the tree. The larger stumps had usually fewer sprouts than smaller stumps. The fertility of the site seemed to have little effect on sprouting, but more moist sites formed more sprouts.

Forest regeneration using sprouts may be possible in peatlands for firewood production. on mineral soil sites birch does not suit for coppicing. The proportion of trees originating from sprouts decreases strongly by the time. Consequently, in Southern Finland sprouts have little effect on regeneration of birch. In Northern Finland sprouting is the most important way of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7355, category Article
Olavi Linnamies, Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kaupunkikuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 7355. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7355
English title: Forests owned by urban municipalities in Finland.

According to the 1st national forest inventory of Finland, municipalities owned 178,000 hectares of forests in 1922, about 0.7% of the total forest area of the country. Only 60,000 hectares of these belonged to urban municipalities. The amount had increased to 73,000 hectares by 1938. Although the area was small, forests were important for municipal economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the state and forest management practices of forests in urban municipalities. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the municipalities in 1936-1938.

Forests covered 50-80% of the area of the urban municipalities, the total area varying from 111 hectares to 7,791 hectares. Only four municipalities owned more than 5,000 hectares of forests. Annual profit of forestry in all urban municipalities totalled about 4.6 million Finnish marks in 1931-1935. Quality of productive forest lands was relatively good, but the volume and growth of the forests rather low. The silvicultural state of the forests could be improved. The article points out that this requires continuous planning. The basis of this is forest management plan, which has been demanded of municipal forests since 1893. However, some of the urban municipalities still lacked a forest management plan, or it was not fully used in forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7354, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1940). Puiden vikanaisuuksien merkitys ja huomioon ottaminen Perä-Pohjolan mäntymetsien hoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 7354. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7354
English title: The effect of injuries in trees on forest management of Scots pine stands in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and the frequency of different kinds of injuries, which are then discussed in relation to the silvicultural state and management of the stands in comparison to ideal forests. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old Scots pine dominated stands in mineral soil sites of different forest types in Northern Finland in the area of Perä-Pohjola. 10–40 trees were chosen as sample trees in each sample plot. The sample trees were felled, and the diameter, height of crown and injuries outside and inside of the stem were recorded.

Length of knot-free part of the stem was higher in the dominant trees and in older age classes of the trees. The form of the stem becomes broader and rounder with the age. The crowns are, however, longer in Northern Finland compared to Southern Finland. In management of Scots pine stands, all trees diseased by Scots pine blister rust (Cronartium flaccidum) should be removed. The disease is common in Northern Finland, and the number of diseased trees increases as the stands get older. Decay was more common in trees that had fire wounds. In general, injuries decreased the length and diameter growth of the trees. From the dominant trees should only injured and diseased trees removed in the thinnigs. Codominant trees can be left to grow when spare trees are needed to replace missing dominant trees. Detailed instruction of selection of the removed trees are given for each age class.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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