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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 | 1959

Category: Article

article id 7117, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1961). Metsäojituksen vaikutuksesta puuston kasvuun ja poistumaan hakkuusuunnitteiden laskemista varten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 8 article id 7117.
English title: The influence of forest drainage on growth and removal in Finland. For estimations of allowable cut.

The Finnish forest industry is undergoing a vast expansion, which has raised questions of forest balance. This paper studies the possibilities to increase the amount available timber by means of forest drainage. About third of the Finnish land area is peatlands. The calculations of the investigation are based on Forestry Board districts. Based on earlier studies, there is estimated to be 3,042,000 ha of true drainable swamps, 973,000 ha of poor swamps, 1,381,000 ha of uplands in need of drainage, and 1,205,000 ha of drained peatlands. Therefore, the area of drainable and drained lands totals 6,6 million ha, and requirement of forest drainage 5,4 million ha. The drainage hardly reaches this extent, however. It can be assumed that part of the poor swamps is uneconomical to drain. In addition, a half of the paludified forest land will probably not be drained. Thus, it can be estimated that the area to be drained in the future is about 5 million ha. It seems possible that this area could be drained within about 50 years with the present draining capacity.

Draining of all objects of forests would increase the annual increment of our forests, in time, by about 10.5 million m3. This would signify an increase of 23% compared to the present growth of the forests. The increase in the growth consists mainly of softwood: 16% is birch, and the remaining 84% almost equally of Scots pine and Norway spruce. The increase of growth is relatively slow. Depending on the rate of the drainage program, the mean increase of growth will be reached in about 25–35 years. The increase in removal indicated by the increase in the mean increment will be reached in only 50–60 years.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7116, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1960). Metsikön taksatorinen tiheys keskipituuteen ja tiheyteen perustuvassa kuutiomäärän arvioinnissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 7 article id 7116.
English title: The mensurational density of a stand in estimating the volume on the basis of the mean height and the density class.

In Finland ocular estimation of the growing stock has been made by means of volume tables based on the mean height and density class, or on the dominant height and density class of the stand. The author has observed that if the volume of a stand is estimated by employment of both tables, the results vary markedly from one another. Furthermore, volume of fully stocked stands in the dominant height tables show an approximate correspondence with the volumes of managed normal stands in Southern Finland.

The purpose of this study is therefore to develop volume tables for coniferous trees, based on the density class and the mean height; these tables should give the same volume for a stand as the dominant height tables.

Volume per hectare of 187 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and 120 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands on different forest types were estimated using the relascope method in Southern Finland. With the volume and the measured mean and dominant heights as a basis, the density classes were extracted from both mean height tables and the dominant height tables. The investigation indicates that the author estimated the dense stands too thinly, and the thin ones too densely, and that the erroneous estimation of the density can be corrected by comparison of the ocular estimations and the corresponding measurements. The density can be measured by means of crown closure, stem number per hectare or the basal area per hectare.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7115, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Kuution ja kasvun laskenta relaskoopilla määritetyllä koealalla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 6 article id 7115.
English title: Volume and increment calculation of a sample plot determined with the relascope.

The relascope method, introduced by Bitterlich, has been mostly used in estimating the basal area of tree stands or growing stock. Volume estimation requires, in addition, mean height and form. The purpose of this study is to work out a method for calculating the volume, bark and increment of the stand from the measurements of sample trees taken on a plot determined with the relascope. All trees of the same diameter have their own plot size and the stand characteristics are the sum of all tree characteristics multiplied by a blow-up factor which is a function of the diameter.

Accurate determination of a sample plot with the relascope requires checking the boundary trees with a tape. In an average forest there are 10 to 20 unit trees on each plot if the opening of the relascope is 2 cm. Because all trees of equal diameter to be tallied on a sample plot represent an equal share of the total basal area, the number of trees to be tallied is very economical from the stand point of volume estimation. Objective selection of the sample trees can easily be done. The unit volume per hectare represented by each tallied tree, or by each sample tree, is directly proportional to the tree height. Thus, the estimates of the stock characteristics can be calculated as arithmetic means from the sample tree characteristics. The calculation procedure which gives the ordinary stock table, volume, bark and increment is also easily carried out with punched cards.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7114, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1960). Metsiköiden routa- ja lumisuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 5 article id 7114.
English title: Snow cover and ground frost in Finnish forests.

Snow cover and ground frost was studied in 29 forest stands in Southern and Central Finland in 1957–1959. The tree species influenced greatly accumulation of snow on the forest floor. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) retains snow in its crown. In addition, snow and water falling from the branches compress the snow cover under the trees, and the ground freezes deeper because of the shallow snow cover. In the spring, the dense crown prevents rain and radiation reaching the ground, which remains cold longer. However, ground frost may protect spruce, which has a weak root system, from wind damages.

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has similar, but milder, effects on snow cover within the forest. The crowns of pine seedlings and young trees pass snow easily, but later the crowns intercept it considerably. The lower branches are, however, high up and the snow is evenly spread on the ground. The deciduous trees intercept little snow and in the spring the snow smelts and the frozen soil thaws early. The snow conditions of deciduous forests are, however, changed by a spruce undergrowth.

It can be assumed that the unfavourable conditions in spruce forests can be alleviated by thinning. Also, mixture of pine and deciduous trees can transform the conditions more favourable in the spruce stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113.
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7112, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1960). Etelä-Suomen kylvömänniköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 3 article id 7112.
English title: Structure and development of Scots pine stands established by sowing in Southern Finland.

In Southern Finland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is mainly sown on Vaccinium and Myrtillus-type sites. The material for the study was collected by measuring sample plots in pure, even-aged pine stand that had been sown. The sample stands had been thinned from below.

The volume of the stands was roughly the same as that of repeatedly thinned pine stands. The cubic volume of sown pine stands is 65–90%, varying according to age, of that of natural-normal pine stands. The current annual volume increment of stands on Myrtillus-type was 8–9 m3/ha at age of 20–30 years. The peak was reached at age of 35 years with 9 m3/ha, in the following years the increment is about 8 m3/ha until the age of 60 years. On Vaccinium type sites increment reaches 6–7 m3 level at age of 30 years, and attains the peak of 7 m3/ha at the age of 45 years. Annual increment was in young and middle-aged Myrtillus-type stands about 10% greater, and on Vaccinium-type stands 15–20% greater than in natural-normal pine stands.

The total volume increment in 70 years old Myrtillus-type stands was 580 m3/ha over bark, and in 80 years old Vaccinium-type stands 520 m3/ha. The total removal on Myrtillus-type sites totalled nearly 350 m3/ha in sown pine stands up to 70 years of age, and 280 m3/ha on Vaccinium-type stands. The total yield in sawn timber per hectare rises up to 6,300 cubic ft in a 70 years old stand on Myrtillus-type stands, and 5,300 cubic ft in Vaccinium-type stands. In conclusion, the volume and increment development of managed pine stands established by sowing up to 70–80 years of age is largely the same as in repeatedly thinned pine stands, but the structure and yield offer greater advantages. The investigation demonstrates that, in the case of Scots pine, sowing is an advantageous method of regeneration. Sowing is an advantage especially in the cases where natural regeneration is uncertain and slow.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7111, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1960). Turpeen maatuneisuuden määrittämisestä : v. Postin maatumisasteen ja Pjavtshenkon maatumisprosentin vertailu. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 2 article id 7111.
English title: Determining decomposition decree of peat with von Post Humification Scale and Pjavtshenko's method.

Decomposition of the peat using von Post Humification Scale (1–10), developed by Lennart von Post, can be determined based on characteristics of peat, such as fibre integrity, colour and viscosity of exudate, and presence of colloidal particles, of handful of peat squeezed in the hand. It is easy to use and has proved useful in the practical work. The method developed by Pjavthenko is mostly based on specific weight off a dried sample in percentage, and requires analysis in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to compare the results of these two methods by measuring 156 peat samples representing different stages of decomposition.

The methods are based on different principles, which is reflected in small differences of the results. The maximum scores of the methods are clearly in different level. The maximum grade of 9–10 in von Post scale correspond decomposition percentage 51 in the scale of Pjavtsheko. However, the decomposition values in von Post scale are placed evenly on the scale of Pjavtshenko. This suggests that the von Post Scale is consistent and accurately developed. According to the study, the Pjavtshenko method is a good method to validate results of von Post Humification Scale, and can be used when decomposition of peat samples is determined in laboratory.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7110, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1959). Suurin kestävä hakkuusuunnite ja sen metsätaloudellinen merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 1 article id 7110.
English title: Largest permanent allowable cut and a method for its calculation.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the factors which determine the amount of the largest permanent allowable cut and to work out a method to estimate it. There is a need to have a ’short cut’ formula for rough preliminary estimates. The preliminary estimates will be checked by stock development forecasts. The largest allowable cut and its sustained basis are only guaranteed by a forecast through a period during which all the present tree stands have reached maturity and exploited.

Estimations of the largest permanent allowable cut are based on the data of the present and desirable growing stock. The present stock was a growing stock of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated stands on Vaccinium type forests in Southern Finland. The connected Austrian formula is a simple way for preliminary estimation of the largest cut but its sustained basis must be checked by a stock development forecast.

In a stock development forecast the future increment and cut are calculated. For this purpose, the average site quality, tree species, age class and average volume in each class seem to be sufficient variables. The forecast is carried out within the limiting data of the present and desirable stock.

If there is an abundance of mature and over-mature stands, the largest permanent allowable cut is greater than the present increment, provided, however, that bulk of the cut is drawn by determined generation measures. Measured in solid cubic meters, the sustained cut from the Southern Finnish pine stock exceeds the present increment by 11%. With regard to the sustained saw timber production the cut can exceed the present increment by 5–7%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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