Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by Aimo Kaarlo Cajander

Category: Article

article id 7396, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Forest types and their significance. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 5 article id 7396. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7396

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This article contains professor A.K. Cajander’s paper on the theory of forest types in English. The article can be found in Finnish in separate PDF (article id 7695).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

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article id 7395, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Metsätyypit ja niiden merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 7395. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7395
English title: Forest types and their significance.

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This PDF includes his article on forest types in Finnish. The translation of the text in English can be found in a separate PDF (article id 7396).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

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article id 7368, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1942). J. P. Norrlinin nuoruusvuodet : professori Norrlinin omien muistiinpanojen pohjalla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 15 article id 7368. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7368
English title: Adolescence of professor J.P. Norrlin.
English keywords: memoir; botanist

The article describes the adolescence and the birth of his interest in botany of well-known Finnish botanist, professor Johan Petter Norrlin, born in 1842, specialized in Hieracium species.

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article id 7279, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1934). Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustyön kehittäminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 7279. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7279
English title: Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustyön kehittäminen.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus
English keywords: ; forest sciences; forest research

The article outlines the further development of forest research work in Finland. It was realized from the beginning that forest sciences in Finland should be grounded on own work, relying on other sciences that had similar objectives. For instance, silvicultural sciences can benefit from phytogeography, plant ecology and soil sciences.

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article id 7193, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1926). The theory of forest types. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 7193. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7193

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

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article id 7192, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1925). Metsätyyppiteoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 7192. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7192
English title: The theory of forest types.

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

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article id 7079, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Was wird mit den Waldtypen bezweckt? Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 7079. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7079
English title: What do the forest types stand for?
Original keywords: Waldtypen; Begriff; Zweck
English keywords: forest type; concept; purpose

The article aims to clarify the terminology and concepts related to forest type classification. The silvicultural meaning of forest type classification is to create classes so that the forests in one class have proximately same growth and yield conditions. The article describes the meaning of silvicultural forest type classification with seven objectives: to create a common height over age -site classification for all tree species; to achieve a common site classification practice for different countries; to achieve the natural height over age –site classifications that are easy to take into account by map drawing; to be able to treat the data for every class separately; to achieve a simple but illustrative description of the site characteristics; to have a foundation for special (applied) silviculture; to create as uniform classification of forests as possible for silvicultural, forest planning or forest policy purposes.     

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article id 7078, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über die Verteilung des fruchtbaren Bodens in Finnland und über den Einfluss dieser Verteilung auf die wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Lande. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 7078. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7078
English title: On the division of fertile soils in Finland and its influence on the economic conditions.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland.

The article presents the classification of soils as forest types to describe their fertility and their occurrence in different parts of Finland. The economic conditions are only shortly mentioned: the more fertile areas in southern and western Finland have been taken for agriculture and the less fertile soils have stayed forested.   

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article id 7077, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über das Verhältnis zwischen Waldzuwachs und Holzverbrauch in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 7077. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7077
English title: On the relation between forest growth and timber consumption in Finland.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923), and again for the German visitors (August 20th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland. The speech deals with the question of the overuse of Finnish forest compared to their growth. The developments of slash-and-burn-culture and forest inventories are described. The results of the inventories show, though still in preliminary state, that there is no nationwide overuse in total, though there are some locations where the felling are bigger than growth. 

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article id 7076, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Forstlich-geographische Übersicht Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 1 article id 7076. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7076
English title: Overview of Finland’s forests and geography.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923), and again for the German visitors (August 20th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland. The speech gives an overview of Finland’s forest resources region by region starting from far north. Also the most important uses and changes of forest as well as forest industry locations are mentioned. 

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article id 7074, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Der Anbau ausländischer Holzarten als forstliches und pflanzengeographisches Problem. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 7074. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7074
English title: Cultivation of exotic tree species as forestry and plant geographic problem.
Original keywords: ausländisch; Holzarten; Provenienz

The distribution and occurrence of plant species, including trees, in the nature show that living and splendor of them is constrained by climatic factors. They have their minimum, optimum and maximum for the temperatures they can survive in. The tree species, at least mostly are divided into different varieties in different areas of the world so that the species are most suitable for the climatic conditions of their site.

The article presents the main climatic zones with their tree species according L. Ilvessalo and they suitability to Finland. More accurate areas of suitable species are also listed. 

The referred results show that alongside the climatic conditions, the conditions of soil and relief must be taken into account when using exotic tree species for forestry purposes.  

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article id 7109, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Einige Hauptzüge der pflanzentopographischen Forschungsarbeit in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 10 article id 7109. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7109
English title: Some outlines of plant topographical studies in Finland.

The text is a presentation given on the occasion of the yearly meeting of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters on April 10th 1922. It presents the development of the plant topographic research in Finland with the most influential research and authors and their principal work.

The retrospect covers the publications between 1673 and 1917
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article id 7100, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Gedächtnisrede für Johan Petter Norrlin, gehalten in der Versammlung der Finnischen Wissenschaftsozietät am 10 Mai 1918. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 7100. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7100
English title: Commemorative speech in honor of Johan Peter Norrlin, given in the meeting of the “Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters” on May 10th 1918.

The here published speech of Cajander presents the academic career of J. P. Norrlin as a researcher, teacher and influential person in the Finnish scientific society. It also sheds light on Norrlin’s person and thoughts. The highlights of his scientific merits are presented. There are many extracts of his correspondence included in the article that describe Norrlin’s thoughts and interest. 

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article id 7067, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Einige Reflexionen über die Entstehung der Arten inbesondere innerhalb der Gruppe der Holzwächse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 7067. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7067
English title: Reflections on the evolution of the species, especially on arborescent plants.

The most abundant tree species occur in different variants in different geographical regions. They differ in their genetic, biological and partly also in morphological characters, however making clear difference between these subspecies is not possible. The different subspecies have developed according the respective areas' climatic and soil conditions, developing adaptive characters. These subspecies play a great role in practical forest management, since they differ in for forestry important characters, such as cold tolerance or stem form. 

The subspecies hybridize with each other in areas where their distribution areas overlap. In these areas the subspecies cannot be always clearly defined.   

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article id 7066, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Zur Kenntnis der Einwanderungswege der Pflanzenarten nach Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 7066. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7066
English title: Knowledge on immigration of plant species to Finland.
Original keywords: Einwanderungsweg; Pflanzenart; Eiszeit;

The article is an abridged version of an essay published in the “Lännetär” (a book published in Finnish on the occasion of the 50th birthday of Professor E. N. Setälä). The article presents the main points of the plant migration to Finland after the glacial period. The research method was based on J. A. Palmen’s work on flyways of the birds. Some results are achieved through plant paleontological studies, others rely on the current distribution of the species.

Some species, such as trees birch, spruce and pine have migrated widely in Finland and there isn’t any specific migration way to be found. Those species do not have any specific preconditions for their habitat and adapt also to barren soils.  Species that require more specific habitats can migrate only through ways where those preconditions are available. 

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article id 7065, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Zur Frage der gegenseitigen Beziehungen zwischen Klima, Boden und Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 7065. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7065
English title: The mutual relationship between the climate, the soil and the vegetation.

The article is based on the work “Metsänhoidon perusteet I” [The fundamentals of Forest management I] by the author (1919 in Finnish). The different processes of the soil and the vegetation are dependent on the climatic conditions, but also affect each other. The article presents the climatic zones of the earth and their most important characteristics in regard of cultivation of (to respective zone) exotic trees species and agriculture. 

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article id 7062, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1922). Zur Begriffsbestimmung im Gebiet der Pflanzentopographie. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 7062. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7062
English title: Determining concepts for topography of plants.

The article presents definitions for central concepts that are commonly used in the research of plant topography. The discipline has close connections to defining and classifying forest types.

The concepts defined involve concrete and abstract concepts linked to vegetation conditions and to habitat. 

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article id 7061, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1921). Ueber Waldtypen II. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 7061. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7061
English title: About the forest types II.

The article contains tree lectures given in the meeting of the Geographical Society in Finland on February 25th 1921.  The titles of the lectures are I Forest types in general, II Forest types as a basis for new growth and yield tables in Finland, and III Other research on forest types.  

The first lecture is a follow-up of the Cajander’s 1909 published article on forest types. It deepens the theory on forest types. The classification into forest types represents primarily different plant communities of ground cover. The types are named after the characteristic plant species, indicator plants, however, many other species appear in different abundance.

The second lecture represents the research proceedings of mensuration of forest stands of different types to compile yield tables for pine.  The forest types differ from each other distinctly on their growing preconditions, but inside one class the variation of the growing conditions is so small, that the classification can be used for yield tables, determining the basis of taxation and for classification of forest based on height over age.

The third lecture is a summary of other studies about forest type classification.  They confirm the results presented in earlier lectures. 

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  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7053, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Valtion metsätalous liikeyrityksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 7053. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7053
English title: State forestry as a business.

The income of forestry in the state lands was 136 million Finnish marks, expenditure 65 million Finnish marks and the result 71 million Finnish marks in 1920. Both the income and expenditure had steadily increased during the 1900s. The forests in state lands are poorer than the forests in the country in average, which affects the profitability of forestry. However, ways to improve the profitability could be found. These include better transport connections, especially floating in Northern Finland. The growth of the forest could be increased by forest improvement, for instance peatland draining. The local demand of wood could be improved by selling rights to harvest household wood.

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article id 7015, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1917). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta v. 1909-1917. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 7015. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7015
English title: The activities of Finnish Society of Forest Science in 1909-1917.

The Finnish Society of Forest Research was established in 1909 to promote research in forest and wood science in Finland. This article contains the minutes of the meetings of the society in 1909-1917, which could not be published earlier due to lack of funding. The minutes include also part of the presentations held in the meetings, 97 in all. Some of the presentations have been published elsewhere, and they are not included in the article.

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article id 7530, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1913). Studien über die Moore Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 7530. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7530
English title: Studies about Finnish peatlands.

The first part of the article presents an overview of peatlands and their classification on the basis of e.g. their nutrient content in Finland. The second part (a separate pdf file) represents the different types of peatland with their indicator plants in Finland. 

Peatlands can be classified in several ways, depending on the purpose of the classification. There are also differences whether an area is considered biologically or geographically as a peatland. For agricultural or forestry purposes the peatlands can be classified on the basis of their nutrient content.

Article also discusses the three ways of emergence of peatlands and the variations of water relations of peatlands.    

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article id 7526, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1913). UEBER WALDTYPEN. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 7526. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7526
English title: About forest site types.

The study is based on research in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, north Russia and Siberia, and Finland in years 1906-1908. The objective of the study is to find means to create forest site classes or forest types to direct practical forest management.

The article presents the classification of forests into site classes (Oxalis-Majanthemum type, Myrtillus type, Vaccinium type and Calluna type). The second part of the article represents different methods to calculate growth and yield tables for different forest site types. The conclusion of the study is that forest areas with similar vegetation and forest type can be handled in one way for forest management. 

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article id 4505, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1937). Tervehdyssanat. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4505. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14083
English title: Greetings of Prof. A.K. Cajander for professional development courses for foresters.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation includes the greetings of professor A.K.Cajander for the courses.

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article id 4461, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1931). Die Organisation der forstwissenschaftlichen Forschungsarbeit in Finnland. Silva Fennica no. 20 article id 4461. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9002
English title: Organizations of the forest research in Finland.

The main idea when founding of the Forest Science Research Institute (later Finnish Forest Research Institute) was to have an independent research institute. The institute had from the beginning the right to pursue experiments in certain state owned forests.

The higher forest education and the research institute are separate from each other. Since 1908 is the higher forest education at the University of Helsinki, before that is was organized in the forest institute in Evo. The forest institute in Evo gave forest education of intermediate grade. The first doctoral defense in forest science took place at the University of Helsinki in 1913.  There is however a close relation between the research institute and university; many professors of the institute teach at the university, and many university professors are engaged in the research work of the institute.  

There was a need to ensure that the forest research will not be monopolized by the research institute and the university. For that purpose The Finnish Society of Forest Science was founded in 1909. Its objective was to enhance the cooperation among forest scientists and with other disciplines as well as with the practical forest professionals. 

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article id 4459, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1931). Tieteellinen tutkimustyö sekä korkein opetus maatalouden ja metsätalouden alalla. Silva Fennica no. 18 article id 4459. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9000
English title: Research and higher education of agriculture and forestry in Finland.

Applied research in the fields of agriculture and forestry is as demanding as theoretical research. The perception that it could be less exact is incorrect. Different variables have to be accounted for, for instance in cultivation of cereals. To define the effect of one variable, the scientist has to know and take account of the combined effect of the all the variables influencing the growth of the species. Results that can be put into practice are often demanded quickly, and the they should be broadly applicable. The research and education in the fields of agriculture and forestry have to respond to domestic needs. It is therefore necessary to secure that the research has sufficient equipment and premises.

The higher education and research of agriculture and forestry should be organized in the capital of the country, where the main organizations of the field are located. The present buildings of the faculty are, however, not adequate for teaching and research. The applied sciences need also connections to practice. Forest education has a forest experimental area, but agricultural education has no experimental fields in its use. The best location would be in Wiik area near the capital Helsinki. In addition, the teaching staff in the faculty is insufficient. New professorships should be established both in agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

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article id 4456, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1930). Wesen und Bedeutung der Waldtypen. Silva Fennica no. 15 article id 4456. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8990
English title: Characters and meaning of forest types.

The article contains three presentations given about forest type classification at the University of Tarto in Estonia. The article has an introduction, a part about the meaning of the natural classification of forest sites and up to now conducted studies on site classification. The second part presents the characteristics of plant communities and the forest types, and practical and theoretical meaning of forest types.

Classifying the forest sites is important in practical forestry, because the forest growth and forest valuation are dependent on the productivity of the soil. The classification of the sites for forest management purposes needs to result in classes that are easily distinguished in the forest. This then leads to forest management that best fits to a certain forest site. 

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article id 4445, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). The scientific foundation of forestry as exemplified by Forest Research Work in Suomi. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4445. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8393

The article is a lecture given by A.K. Cajander in the International Congress of Plant Science. The lecture describes results of Finnish forest research that might be regarded significant also for North America. Because of similarities in nature and forest management, forest research may use similar methods in both areas.

For instance, line plot survey in the form used in Finland could well be applied in North America. In Finland, lines were drawn at 26 kilometer intervals. Visual estimates about, for instance, species, tree growth and productivity class, were made along the lines and sample plots were taken every other kilometer. To gain full advantage of the method, a productivity classification and yield tables are needed. When these are known, it is possible to find out how to increase the productivity of forests with suitable tree species and proper forest management. This kind of inventory of forest resources and the state of forests provides reliable information for forest policy. Another important issue for forest research is forest management, which requires understanding on their biology. At the same time, research must provide methods for practical forestry.

A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.

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article id 4439, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). Some aspects of forest research work. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4439. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8387

The article highlights the need to classify the forest sites in objective and exact classes. This is important both from a practical and a scientific point of view as well as from a silvicultural point of view, for the forest management varíes for each tree species, and according to the site, even if the species remains the same. It is evident that the same classification of sites according to quality ought to be applicable to silviculture, forest mensuration and statistics. In Finland, a forest site type rating has been created for this purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

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article id 4438, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). Teaching of forestry in Suomi, general features. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4438. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8386

The higher education of forestry in Finland was transferred to the University of Helsinki in 1908 from the Evo Forest Institute, where it was established in 1859. The principal idea was that the University should educate practical forest officials with a scientific education, and that the more talented students should be able to continue their scientific studies. The four main diciplines were silviculture, forest management, forest utilization and forest policy. The studies for the forest officer examination took about 3–4 years. For those students interested in further scientific studies, a Candidate (Master) and Licentiate (Doctor) examination was arranged.

In addition to higher education, elementary forestry education was arranged at five Forest Schools in different parts of the country.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

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article id 4437, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). The organization of forest administration in Suomi. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4437. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8385

A temporary organization for forest service was established in 1851 for the State forests of Finland. It was made permanent in 1859, and a central board, chief forest supervisors, forest supervisors and forest guards were appointed for the state forests. The Forest Research Institute, established in 1917, was subordinated to the Board of Forestry. In addition, the higher forest education was subordinated to Board of Forestry until it was moved to the University of Helsinki in 1908.

In 1921 the administration was reorganized to meet the requirements of developing forestry in the state forests. The Forest Service was divided into two sections: The State Forest Section and the Private Forest Section. The first consists of four divisions and the latter two. The forests under the supervision of the State Forest Section are divided into four districts, and each of these into two or three inspection territories. Under the supervision of the Private Forest Section are the forest schools, the Forest Research Institute, and the forest officials working for the ecclesiastical forests and Provincial Forest Committees. The Forest Research Institute is only nominally subordinated to the Private Forest Section of the Board of Forestry. It has 17 experimental areas in various parts of the country. These areas have been separated from the supervisor-areas of the state forests.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

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