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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by Viljo Holopainen

Category: Article

article id 7126, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). On the price elasticity of the supply of sawn wood for export. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 4 article id 7126. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7126

The present investigation is concerned with the price elasticity of sawn wood, concentrating on the price elasticity of sawn wood supply for export. The supply of sawn wood for export is referred to the joint attitude to price changes of all producers participating in the market.

The study concludes that producers cannot in the short- and medium-term view use the price parameter to increase total utilization in the sawn wood market. Demand holds a primary position in price formation. The capacity reserve of the sawmills permits great variations in output at the mill level, and thus elasticity in the supply of sawn wood. High timber costs are typical for the industry. Supply of roundwood can easily be adapted even to large variations in demand. The price elasticity of roundwood supply is rather great.

The long process of sawn wood production and the resulting relatively long lead-time of deliveries result in a long adaptation time of supply. Expansion and contraction of sawn wood exports cause, via the effect of exports, on income similar fluctuations in the domestic sales of sawn wood. This weakens the price elasticity of exports in some degree.

The ‘instantaneous elasticity’ upwards of sawn wood supply might be great, but speculation with stocks at the different levels of production often makes it ‘incalculable’. The price elasticity of a medium-long and long period can be expected to be relatively great upwards. The downward elasticity of a period of medium length is probably small. The elasticity of a prolonged period may be influenced by the substitution of other materials for sawn wood.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7124, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). Central marketing of cellulose, with particular reference to brand policy. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 2 article id 7124. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7124

Sales of cellulose have been handled in Finland since 1918 on a central marketing system through the Finnish Cellulose Union (Suomen Selluloosayhdistys), which is a joint sales company formed by the enterprises. First part of the paper constitutes the questions of the channels and functions of marketing. The most focal problem is related to the interests of individual producers. The second part concentrates on the brand policy of central marketing.

The small number of producer companies and – for 40 years ago – the existence of relatively few categories and grades on the market have contributed to the birth of central marketing of cellulose in Finland. Central marketing is probably more advantageous for smaller firms and companies less well placed than the biggest concerns. It levels out the status held by the best and the weakest firm in individual marketing and consequently perhaps does not give a top brand the standing it would have in relation to the other brands in individual marketing. Central marketing may have advantages also in regards of general price level and marketing costs.

The marketing system is dependent on the conditions in which it is to be carried out. An example of this is that Scandinavian cellulose producers have fairly good opportunities under the individual marketing system of using the service factor, owing to the good and far-ranging scheduled shipping facilities of the countries. It is probably the different conditions in this country that have made Finland’s cellulose marketing system essentially different from that of the Scandinavian countries.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7121, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). Marketing roundwood in Finland and the Scandinavian Countries. With special regard to marketing channels and trade customs. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 4 article id 7121. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7121

The present investigation set out to find out the structures of supply and demand, channels and methods of marketing, developments in marketing methods, trade customs, similarities and differences in marketing of the private forest owners and the State, local features of the market of domestic roundwood trade in Finland, and compares marketing of unprocessed wood between Finland and Scandinavian countries. The study is based on statistics of various sections of trade and from the State Boards of Forestry.

The channels of marketing from private forests in Finland and the Scandinavian countries are different. In Norway the wood is primarily marketed through the forest owners’ associations, in Finland direct individual selling is applied, while in Sweden both channels are common. In Norway and in Sweden the forest owners’ marketing organizations were probably formed mainly to protect the forest owners’ interest in price formation. The price is determined on the organizational level, while in Finland the price formation mechanism has retained a competitive nature. In Sweden the creation of demand for roundwood has been one reason for establishment of the associations, which have established new forest industry particularly in areas of low demand.

The institutions affect also the trade customs in Norway and Sweden. For instance, measuring of roundwood is performed in Scandinavia according to detailed public regulations and often carried out by the officials of special measuring boards. The Forms Committee has also since 1950 brought significant unification in the trade customs of Finland. Greatest differences in trade customs between the State and private forestry is observed in Finland.

The producer’s role in marketing has increased since 1930s, which is demonstrated by the increasing activity in marketing by the forest owners’ associations in Norway and Sweden. Also, the relative importance of sales with contract for delivery has been growing. A second line of development appears in the more detailed norms in trade customs.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7488, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1959). The concept of a roundwood price level and its determination in forestry. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 6 article id 7488. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7488

Roundwood statistics are essential in a country such as Finland, where the roundwood market costitutes one of the most important internal markets. Determining the price level of roundwood can, however, be problematic due to the difficulty of the empirical determination. The main difficulties are the many timber assortments, quality differcences within a timber assortment, large variation of local prices due to variations in demand and harvesting conditions and in sales methods. The article discusses these problems from the perspective of composing a roundwood statistics for different timber assortments that would allow local and temporal comparison of the prices. It seems impossible to compose price statistics that could eliminate totally the variation in the material, transport conditions and demand fluctuations caused by technical development. However, one can suffice to a compromise that would eliminate the major disturbances and take into account other factors that are not related with market when studying the price series. In addition, the paper discusses methods for calculation of price indices.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7448, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1954). Suomen havusahatavaran viennin kausimaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 36 article id 7448. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7448
English title: The seasonal fluctuations in the Finnish exports of sawn softwood.

The purpose of the investigation was to examine the seasonal pattern in Finnish export shipments and export sales of sawn softwood in 1927-1953. Statistics concerning shipments have been obtained from the Board of Customs, and material relating to sales has been provided by the Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association (now Finnish Sawmills Association). On the basis of original monthly statistics, 13-month moving averages were computed. Finally, a seasonal index was calculated.

According to the results, the export shipments have a fairly apparent seasonal pattern with very low figures from January to April, a peak from June to August, and thereafter a gradual decline up to the end of the year. There are also considerable variations from year to year but in general the exports follow this rhythm. In contrast to export shipments the seasonal pattern of export sales is characterised by significant irregularity. Market developments and speculation play a far greater role than the seasonal factors. Indeed, a seasonal character in export sales can scarcely be discerned.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7405, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1950). Eräiden Suomen kaupunkien halkojen hankinta-alueet : markkinatieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 1 article id 7405. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7405
English title: The firewood supply areas of four Finnish towns.

In the present investigation, the problems connected to demand of firewood are dealt with by studying the fuel markets of the three biggest towns in Finland – Helsinki, Turku and Tampere as well as those of Vaasa. The purpose of the investigation was to study the firewood supply areas in two time periods, in 1933-1939 and in 1945-1947, after the Second World War.

Railway and shipping were the most important ways for transporting firewood in 1933-1939. Towards the end of the period, road transport increased especially in Turku and in Vaasa. In 1945-47 almost 90% of the firewood transported to Helsinki, 60% to Tampere and Turku, and over 50% of the firewood transpors to Vaasa were carried by rail. One factor supporting rail transport was that the tariff policy of the State Railways gave preference to firewood transports.

The supply areas increased markedly from 1933-1939 to 1945-1947. Supply of firewood near the towns in the southern, southwestern and western parts of the country was small. Also, pulp industry began to use small-sized timber in 1930s, which increased competition of the wood. Coal and coke began to replace firewood in the 30s, but their use decreased during and after the war due to supply shortage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5422, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1990). Suomen pyöreän puun vienti 1921-1986. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15576
English title: Finnish exports of roundwood in 1921–1986.

When Finland attained independence in 1917–1918, about 65% of her population made their linving from agriculture and only 17% from industry. Despite the fact that most sectors of the modern forest industry, i.e. sawmilling, pulp and paper making as well as plywood industry were then in existence a considerable proportion of timber was exported as roundwood.

It was reasonable to assume, however, that further economic development would reduce the roundwood exports to provide raw material for industry. The present paper investigates the Finnish roundwood exports in 1921–1986 largely from the point of view of this hypothesis. Examination of statistics is focused on the change of volume of exports in the major categories of wood, changes in the trade policies of consumer countries, changes in competition between exporting countries and changes in Finnish export policy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4791, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1969). Metsäntutkimuslaitos tehostuvan metsätalouden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4791. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14577
English title: The Finnish Forest Research Institute in the present period of increasing intensity of forestry.

Foundation of the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 1917 was one step in the plans of A.K. Cajander to organize Finnish forestry research. Already earlier the highest forestry education had been incorporated into the University of Helsinki (1908) and the Finnish Society of Forestry founded (1909). In conformity with statute of 1962, the task of the Forest Research Institute is “to perform studies and experiments in order to develop Finnish forestry in a manner adapted to the purpose”. Consequently, the task of the institute is to carry out studies explicitly serving practical forestry.

The article describes the actual and required development of the Forest Research Institute. Concerning the most recent steps of development, for instance, four new professorships has been created: Forest Zoology, Tree Breeding, Forest Yield Science and Mathematics. In addition, a few regional research and experimental stations were established.

Strengthening the Forest Research Institute, i.e. increasing its staff of research workers and its funds, must still be continued to make it possible for the Institute to satisfy the great demand for research work of present-day practical forestry. The article also gives attention to the internal scientific development of the institute. Particularly, there is reason to stimulate the extended studies of young research workers as well as international exchange.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7645, category Article
Viljo Holopainen, Aarne Nyyssönen, N. A. Osara, Jouko Hämäläinen, K. O. Donner. (1984). Suomen Metsätieteellinen seura 75 vuotta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 190 article id 7645. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7645
English title: The 75th Anniversary volume of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The 75th Anniversary volume of the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) consists of three invited papers.

Professor Viljo Holopainen contributed the article ”The Society of Forestry in Finland during the period of active science and forest policy”. The article gives an account of the founding of the Society and its early activities, and views the main trends in the development of forest science in Finland. The emphasis is on a review of the science policy practiced in Finland during the past few decades, the changes that have taken place in forestry and forest policy and the challenges facing forest research in the changed circumstances. The development in the organization and material resources of forest research is examined in relation to the general trends in science policy. The author also gives an extensive account of the Society’s activities.

Professor Aarne Nyyssönen’s article ”International connections of Finnish forestry research” is an account of the international connections that forestry research in Finland has had in recent years. The author begins with international cooperation in university level education, especially in research training. He then proceeds to examine the international organizations in the field of forestry research, their tasks, activities and the role of Finnish researchers in them. A special form of cooperation, based on bilateral agreements between Finland and other countries is brought up. The greatest importance is attached to Nordic cooperation.

Professor N.A. Osara studies the comprehensive question ”World forestry: some trends and prospects”. The article begins with a review of forest resources, which points out several alarming problems in the tropical and subtropical zones as well as in industrialized countries. Prospects for expansion in the consumption of wood and wood-based products, industry and trade are studied in relation to wood availability and renewable forest resources. The author concludes that forestry can contribute to the improvement of rural conditions all over the world. He also stresses the importance of forest management not only for wood production but also for soil and water management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Donner, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4715, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Leo Heikurainen, Viljo Holopainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kullervo Kuusela, Tatu Möttölä. (1963). Metsätalouden parannusten työllisyys- ja tulovaikutukset. Silva Fennica no. 114 article id 4715. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14273
English title: Effects of forest improvement on employment and income.

The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.

The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.

The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttölä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4683, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1959). Suomen metsien luovutusmäärä hakkuuvuosina 1955/56-1956/57. Hakkuutilaston metodia käsittelevä koetutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 97 article id 4683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14128
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4667, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1957). Metsätalouden edistämistoiminta Suomessa : Tapio 1907-1957. Silva Fennica no. 94 article id 4667. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14126
English title: Promotion of private forestry in Finland, Tapio 1907-1957.

For many decades Finland’s forest policy has been focused on private forestry, accounting for approximately 60% of Finland’s forest area. The objective has been to regulate forest management by legislation and to promote private forestry. The aim of the study was to explore the role of the Central Forestry Association Tapio in promoting private forestry.

A detailed synthesis of Tapio’s 50 years long history and activities is drafted. According to the three forest inventories (in 1921-24, 1936-37 and 1951-53), big improvements have been made in cutting methods, mainly in the sense that selective cuttings have decreased. The condition of private forests is, however, not as good as that of the state and company forests. Improvements introduced in the legislation in 1928 have had great influence in forestation and drainage of peatlands in private forests. The private forests, however, suffer from a lack of planning.

Through Intensified forest policy it has been possible to ensure supply of roundwood for forest industry. An efficient information service on timber markets have been organized, and the measurement of roundwood has been standardized. Progress in the promotion of forestry has suffered from unfavourable trends in forestry, mainly from the nearly doubling of the number of forest holdings in the present century and from the contraction of their size.

The article includes an English summary.

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