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Articles by Kauko Hahtola

Category: Article

article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7182, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Hankintahakkuut ja maatilakokonaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 1 article id 7182. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7182
English title: Delivery cuts of timber in farm management.

The study links up with the general development of logging on private farm woodlots, practiced by the Work Efficiency Institute (Työtehoseura). It is based on the idea that the promotion of forest management on farms should be integrated with general agricultural development. The aim of the study was to find out the relation between delivery cuts and management of the farm as a whole, including economic and social environment. The first, methodological part develops a model representing farming, based on factor analysis. The second part tests the applicability of the factor analysis in the light of the empirical data, and studies the relation between delivery cuts and total farming and regional differences in farming.

Despite the descriptive nature of the factors obtained, the solution permitted a multi-dimensional examination. It seems that certain aspects typical to scattered settlement accentuate the importance of the forest for the farm. These include a high ratio of forest to arable land, barren soil and forest holdings that form unbroken tract of land. The importance of forestry is accentuated by the self-sufficiency of farms in labour and tractive power. On the other hand, there were lines of production and forms of livelihood and land utilization that compete with forestry, such as off-farm employment and alternative forms of land-use. One factor indicative for small importance of forestry for the farms was the small size in ratio to arable land. Often money for machinery has come from forest revenues.

The factor analysis indicate that a rational parcelling of forest holdings leads to better cutting methods. Also, cutting method improve and the proportion of renewal cuttings increase on moving from remote areas towards population centers. Productivity of delivery cuts is affected by the total employment of labour and tractive power on the farm. Abundance of labour and the use of farm’s own labour are probably detrimental to the productivity of delivery cuts. When the farms grow, the increase in the quantity felled and the rise in the degree of mechanization favour productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4887, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1973). Metsänomistajien käyttäytymistutkimuksissa sovelletut tutkimusotteet. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4887. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14725
English title: Research approaches applied in the Finnish studies of forest owners’ behaviour.

The methodological choices of researchers are in general based on some research strategic preferences which originate from the prevailing tradition of the special research field. »Econometric» and »positivistic» approaches commit to the ideals of natural sciences whereas the hermeneutic approach represents the tradition of humanities. The explicit formulation and consideration of the philosophical and methodological commitments of the different research strategies may facilitate the discussion on the applicability of different methods of analysis.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4884, category Article
Kauko Hahtola, Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Aarne Reunala. (1973). Metsänomistajien puunmyyntikäyttäytyminen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4884. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14721
English title: The timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners.

The task of this study was to gather all available information concerning timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners and to try to find the probable trends in this behaviour. The initiative for the study came from the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries.

In Finland there are areas of timber savings and those of overcutting. These are mainly explained by regional variation in prosperity of forest owners. There are also several individual factors affecting timber sales behaviour. Without major changes in forest policy the annual variation in quantity cut in Finland is increasing and the degree of cutting seem to remain below the allowable cut.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4850, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1971). Faktorianalyysi metsänomistajien käyttäytymistutkimuksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4850. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14652
English title: Use of factor analysis in the studies of forest owners’ behaviour.

Some alternative ways of using factor analysis in the field of forest owners’ behaviour are explored in the article, in the light of two new Finnish publications. The philosophical and mathematical propertied of factor analysis are often considered too restrictive, and thus its applicability to different fields too limited. A good knowledge of the method and the subject matter theories seems to be an important prerequisite for a successful application of factor analysis. Otherwise the researcher is too dependent on the general recommendations concerning the use of factor analysis and cannot fit its use in his special situation and the whole methodological setting of the study.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7564, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1973). The rationale of decision-making by forest owners. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 130 article id 7564. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7564

The study explores the mental and environmental factors affecting the normative and strategic decision-making of forest owners. Four value orientations: preference for subsistence economy, attachment to land, resistance to change and traditionalism are defined by the aid of factor analysis, as well as six ecological types of farming: (1) problem farming, (2) extensive part-time farming, (3) prosperous field farming, (4) labour-intensive family farming, (5) part-time farming, and (6) commercial farming. The decisions analysed on the basis of these theoretical constructs concern management, cooperation and the promotion of private forestry. Some philosophical problems connected with the use of mental variables are also discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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