Current issue: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by V. Pöntynen

Category: Article

article id 7413, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1954). Tutkimuksia Suomen teollisuuden vuonna 1950 käyttämistä polttoaineista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 1 article id 7413. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7413
English title: Investigations into industrial fuel in Finland in 1950.

The use of imported fuels has increased in Finland, which has resulted in a growing disregard of domestic fuels, primarily firewood, on fuel market. This has affected forest management and economy of forest owners as well as diminishing the working opportunities in the countryside by decreasing the demand of small-sized timber. This investigation studies the fuel problem in the industrial field by a survey sent to all industrial plants in the country.

The different fuels were converted to the calorific value of pine firewood measured in piled cubic meters (p-m3, cu.m.). In 1950 the industry utilized 14.1 million cu.m piled measure of imported and domestic fuels. Of this 47% was domestic fuels and 53% imported fuels. The share of coal was 40%, wood waste almost 30%, and firewood 18%. The relatively small proportion of firewood suggests that it could be possible to increase the industrial demand for firewood. However, it should be noted that industry uses fuel mainly for power production, where imported fuels are highly effective. Forest industry used 2/3 of all domestic fuel.

According to the report, waste wood was cheapest kind of fuel for industry. It was, however, often the plant’s own waste material. The cost of coal at the mill was 60% of the corresponding price of firewood. The location of the industry affects greatly the price relations between domestic and imported fuels. Coal is cheaper close to the harbours and the coastline of the country. The state has supported firewood transportation by lower freight rates for firewood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7335, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1936). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuus raaka-aineen käyttäjänä vuosina 1925-1935. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 7335. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7335
English title: The consumption of wood in forest manufacturing industry in Finland in 1925-1935.
English keywords: saw industry; pulp industry

The consumption of wood and the value of the wood in the forest manufacturing industry in 1925‒1935 was studied using the official industrial statistics as the main source of data. The annual wood consumption of sawmills, plywood industry, match production, wood-wool industry, spool production, mechanical pulp mills, sulfite pulp mills and sulfate pulp mills was in average 15.6 million cubic meters, of which 4.0 million m3 was pulpwood, 11 million m3 saw logs and 0.44 million m3 veneer timber. The spool production used 163,200 m3, match production 39,900 m3 and wood-wool production 7,900 m3 of wood. When the wood consumption is at its maximum levels, the fellings cannot be increased sustainably. Thus, the sawing cannot be increased from the present level. The growth of pulp industry has created demand for small timber, and in that industry there is room for expansion.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7326, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1936). Metsän hakkuun ja ajon sekä puutavaran uiton työn kysynnästä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 9 article id 7326. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7326
English title: The demand of forest work and floating work in Finland.

Forestry has been almost the sole source of employment during winter in the forested areas of Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of men and horses working in logging and haulage in different times of year in 1933‒1934. The felling and haulage of household timber was not included in the study. The amount of work days was calculated using the statistics of wood consumption. The work days in logging was 10.0 million days in 1933 and 11.9 million days in 1934. Accordingly, approximately 3.6 million work days was done in horse-haulage in 1933 and 4.3 million in 1934. The forest companies and Metsähallitus (Forest Service) employed most employees in wood harvesting in January‒March, in average 14,300‒25,700 men and 3,300‒9,300 horses per month. The number of employees was lowest in August.

In floating, 1 million work days was done in 1934 and 1,1 million in 1934. Most employees were hired in April‒June. Floating is an important source of employment for the landless people when the fellings stop in the spring. The farmers working in wood harvesting can move to work in their farms.

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article id 7268, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1932). Höyryalusten polttopuun kulutus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 7268. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7268
English title: Höyryalusten polttopuun kulutus.
Original keywords: höyryalus; polttoaine; polttopuu
English keywords: steamboat; steamship; fuelwood; fuel; coal

A questionnaire was sent to the steamship owners to investigate the annual fuelwood consumption of the steamships in Finland in 1927‒1929. Most of the steamships used split spillet as fuel, and the share of coal and waste wood remained low. The fuelwood consumption of cargo ships, passenger ships and tugboats was calculated for different kinds of steamships, and by the engine power of the ships and by the fuelwood type. The annual fuelwood consumption of cargo ships was 22,768‒27,390 m3, passenger ships 24,738­‒33,616 m3 and tugboats 76,764‒113,791 m3 in 1927‒1929.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7267, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1932). Jalostamattoman puutavaran vienti Suomesta vuosina 1911-1931. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 7267. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7267
English title: Export of roundwood from Finland in 1911‒1931.
Original keywords: puun vienti; raakapuu; vienti; sahatukki; parru

The export of roundwood from Finland was studied based on the official statistics of foreign trade. The volumes were converted to solid volumes under bark. Roundwood (logs and masts) or raw timber trade consisted mainly of saw logs. The main tree species was Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrs L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). The annual volumes varied from 29,200 m3 in the war year 1918 to 657,200 m3 in 1924. Before the World War I the roundwood was exported mainly to Sweden and Russia, after the war the trade to Russia ceased. Also split spillet was a significant export item before the war. The export peaked in 1916 to 3 million m3, but decreased after the war to 30,000‒40,000 m3. The most important export item in the group of hewn timber has been Egyptian rafters, with annual export of 15,000‒284,600 m3 with the exception of the time of war. The export of spars exported to other countries than Egypt was highest before the war with 125,000 m3. The export of sleepers varied strongly, peaking in 1922. The total export of roundwood varied from 131,000 m3 in 1918 to 4.3 million m3 in 1927. Roundwood has mainly been exported to the European countries. Before the war, the main trading partners were United Kingdom and Russia. After the war the share of United Kingdom was nearly half of the volume, and Russia was replaced with Sweden.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7256, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1929). Tutkimuksia kuusen esiintymisestä alikasvoksina Raja-Karjalan valtionmailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 7256. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7256
English title: Studies on Norway spruce undergrowth in state forests in Karelia.

The abundance of Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) H. Karst.) undergrowth is common for the state forests in Karelia near the Russian border, in Finland. In the survey, the occurrence of the undergrowth was studied. The article includes a review on the ownership of the forest, forest soils in the area, and the state of forests in the area. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominative species in 67%, Norway spruce in 27% and Betula sp. 6% of the state forests. Only 2% of the forests are 1‒20 years of age. Stands in the age group of 61‒80 years are the most common (25%). Norway spruce undergrowth is most abundant in the municipality of Salmi. The forests are typically moist forest site types or grass-herb site types. If the stands are allowed to develop naturally, even the Vaccinium sites become Norway spruce dominated. Spruce undergrowth is formed seldom under a spruce forest unless the stand is thin or has openings. Because Norway spruce is often rare in the mineral soil sites, the undergrowth is often regenerated from seeds that spread from spruce swamps. Earlier practiced shifting cultivation and its frequent fires prevented regeneration of spruce undergrowth. Similarly, the common felling method used, clear felling in strips, does not promote spruce undergrowth. Consequently, their occurrence is likely to decrease in the future.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4589, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1948). Eräitä näkökohtia metsähallituksen pysty- ja hankintamyynneistä. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4589. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13991
English title: Aspects of sales at delivered price and stumpage sales made by Forest Service.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation compares timber sales by delivered price and stumpage sale in the state forest. The buyers of wood have criticised sales bu delivered price from the state forests. The article discusses which of the type of sales is more profitable for the state.

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