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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by P. S. Tikka

Category: Article

article id 7400, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1949). Perä-Pohjolan koivikoiden laadusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 4 article id 7400. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7400
English title: Quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in the northernmost Finland.

The quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland is low due to the harsh environment, unsuitable sites for the species and unsatisfactory silvicultural state. A total of 236 sample trees were felled and measured in 8 sample plots. The trees were over 80 years old.

Only third of the stand volume of birch in the stands had adequate quality for merchantable timber. This is due to birch growing often in sites unsuitable for the species, the low density of the stands, the small average size of stems, and the low amount of large sized trees. These problems may contribute to the fact that birch seem to be susceptible to decay. The trees have often grown from sprouts, which leads often to poor stem form and decay. The volume and quality of both pure and mixed birch stands was sufficient only in the most fertile sites. Also, decay was more common in poor sites.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7389, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1947). Perä-Pohjolan kuusikoiden laadusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 7389. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7389
English title: Quality of Norway spruce stands in Peräpohjola in Northern Finland.

The different kinds of injuries in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands was studied in 52 sample plots in Peräpohjola in the northernmost Finland. The age classes of the stands varied from 100 years to over 220 years. Most of the stands were unevenaged, as is usual in the area.

In the younger age classes (121-160 years) majority of the trees were of normal quality or had smaller injuries in all forest types. In age classes over 160 years the trees of merchantable quality decreased markedly in all forest types. The quality of the trees decreases with the age especially because of butt rot, braking of trees and crooks, forks and heart and top decay caused by the injuries. To ensure future quality it would be important that the stand is healthy from the beginning. When old spruce stands of the area are in large extent diseased by the root rot, it is questionable if they can be regenerated using natural regeneration. The spruce stands of the area are also relatively branchy. This could be prevented by growing the young stands dense. Changing the dominant tree species to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the dry upland forest sites could be a way to improve the quality of the forests in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7354, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1940). Puiden vikanaisuuksien merkitys ja huomioon ottaminen Perä-Pohjolan mäntymetsien hoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 7354. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7354
English title: The effect of injuries in trees on forest management of Scots pine stands in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and the frequency of different kinds of injuries, which are then discussed in relation to the silvicultural state and management of the stands in comparison to ideal forests. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old Scots pine dominated stands in mineral soil sites of different forest types in Northern Finland in the area of Perä-Pohjola. 10–40 trees were chosen as sample trees in each sample plot. The sample trees were felled, and the diameter, height of crown and injuries outside and inside of the stem were recorded.

Length of knot-free part of the stem was higher in the dominant trees and in older age classes of the trees. The form of the stem becomes broader and rounder with the age. The crowns are, however, longer in Northern Finland compared to Southern Finland. In management of Scots pine stands, all trees diseased by Scots pine blister rust (Cronartium flaccidum) should be removed. The disease is common in Northern Finland, and the number of diseased trees increases as the stands get older. Decay was more common in trees that had fire wounds. In general, injuries decreased the length and diameter growth of the trees. From the dominant trees should only injured and diseased trees removed in the thinnigs. Codominant trees can be left to grow when spare trees are needed to replace missing dominant trees. Detailed instruction of selection of the removed trees are given for each age class.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7340, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1938). Puiden vikanaisuuksien vaikutuksesta hakkuutulokseen Perä-Pohjolan havumetsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 7340. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7340
English title: The effect of injuries of the stems to amount of merchantable timber in the northernmost Finland.

The effect of different kinds of injuries in the amount of merchantable timber was studied in 57 sample plots in the northernmost Finland. Without any injuries the yield of timber would have been 72.3% in Scots pine (Pinus sylverstris L.) and 89.9% in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Butting, and removal of parts of the stems due to Injuries decreased the volume by 10.4% in pine and 13.5% in spruce. The main cause for butting of pine was fire wounds, and butt rot in spruce. Also pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum) causes injuries in Scots pine. The better the forest site type, the smaller is the timber discarded due to injuries. In pine 54% and in spruce 53% of the trees and were healthy. The forests in the northernmost Finland are over-mature which increase the occurrence of fire wounds and decay. Thus, forest fire control and the felling or thinning of over-mature stands will improve the quality of the timber in the long run.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7314, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1935). Puiden vikanaisuuksista Pohjois-Suomen metsissä: tilastollis-metsäpatologinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 7314. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7314
English title: Injuries in different tree species in Northern Finland: A statistical-forest pathological study.

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in different parts of the trees and the frequency of different kinds of injuries. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old forests in mineral soil sites and peatlands. All the trees over 1.5 m high were felled in the sample plots and the stem injuries were studied. The structure of the stand and the crown classes were recorded. The proportion of undamaged trees was largest in in dominant and codominant trees and increased towards the better forest site types. The typical injuries are listed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L). H. Karst.) and Betula sp. stands. The injuries were divided in inner and outer form defects and injuries, and defined in more detail by the part of the stem and tree species. Defects caused by decay were analyzed separately.

Healing over of injuries was faster in the better sites. Form defects and other injuries were more common in birch stands than in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands. Decay was most common in birch stands. The pine stands were the healthiest, followed by spruce stands. Fire wound were most usual in pine, butt rot for spruce, and crooks and general decay for birch.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7289, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1934). Über die Stockfäule der Nadelwälder Nord-Suomis (-Finnlands). Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 12 article id 7289. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7289
English title: Butt rot in the coniferous forests of northern Finland.

There are two fungi that cause butt rot: Fomitopsis annosa and Bjerkandera borealis. The losses they cause in pine forests are relatively mild, the share of rotten trees is between 6 and 12 % and the rot is restricted to the butt end of the tree.

In forests dominated with spruce the losses to timber are more notable. The share of trees infected with butt rot is between 10 and 40 % and of the volume at least 12 per cent. The more barren the heath forest site the greater the defect caused by decay. In the forests on peatland the pine swamps and spruce moors are the most affected.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7257, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1929). Ulkomaisten puulajien kasvu- ja menestymissuhteista eräässä Kulosaaren yksityispuistikossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 7257. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7257
English title: Growth and success of exotic tree species in a private garden in Kulosaari, Finland.
English keywords: climate; provenance

The growth of 35 exotic tree species in garden established in 1912 is discussed in the article. The site is located in Kulosaari, Helsinki in the Southern coast of Finland. The species represented the Chamaecyparis, Abies, Tsuga, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Betula, Fagus, Quercus, Juglans, Populus, Salix, Tilia, Acer, Prunus, Crataegus and Amelanchier families. All the tree species from northern continental climate and most of the species of temperate regions grew well or moderately well. Species form northern oceanic climate succeeded moderately well. The species from southern continental or oceanic climate did not endure the climate in Kulosaari. Definite conclusions were not possible to make, because the precise origin of the seedlings was not known, and there was usually only one tree from each species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4465, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1932). Metsäpatologisen tutkimuksen tehtävistä Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 24 article id 4465. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9021
English title: Objectives of forest pathology research in Finland.

The forest pathology research has gradually been focused more to avail silcviculture. Forest pathology has contacts to other fields in forest sciences, and can deepen the knowledge of forest management practices. The studies on specific fungal diseases are beneficial to the forestry. Special focus should be put to statistical forest pathology research. In addition, the monitoring of large-scale damages would give new perspective to forest pathology. It should also be compared how fungal diseases differ in managed forests and forests in natural state, and how silviculture can be used to promote the healing of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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