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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by M. Lappi-Seppälä

Category: Article

article id 7361, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1942). Siperian lehtikuusen kasvusta sekametsiköissä Evon valtionpuistossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 8 article id 7361. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7361
English title: Growth of Siberian larch in mixed stands in state forests of Evo in Finland.

Of the foreign tree species Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) has the biggest economical potential in Finland. In its natural distribution the species grows mostly in mixed stands in other areas than the core of its range in Siberia, where it grows also in pure stands. However, growth studies have given contradictory results about how Siberian larch can manage competition of different tree species in mixed stands. In this study two-year old Siberian larch seedlings were planted in areas previously sown with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The growth of the trees was measured when the stands were 50 years old.

It appears that the stands, about 3700 larch seedlings per hectare, have originally been too been too dense. In the two thinnings done in the area, larch has probably been favoured, which has resulted in varying mix of pine and spruce. In the 50-year old stands, Siberian larch has developed faster than Scots pine and Norway spruce. Contrary to some previous studies, the results show that Siberian larch can be grown also in mixed stands, but the growth will probably be slower than in pure stands. Best growth is achieved in pure stands that have been planted thinly enough.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7353, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1940). Suomen evankelisluterilaisten seurakuntien kirkollisvirkatalojen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 6 article id 7353. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7353
English title: Forestry and forest holdings of the residences of Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland.

Residences of priests in Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland, and the forest holdings belonging to them, have been received in different ways. Some have been donated to the church, some belonged originally to the state, and some have been parceled out from the lands of local farmers. The forests holdings were, therefore, not considered to be property of the church. The use of the forests was limited, and they were managed by a forest management plan under supervision of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The aim of the study was to survey the extent of forests properties of the parishes, how they have been managed, and their incomes to the parishes in 1933-1938.

The 784 residences had 217,600 hectares of forests. The forest holdings of the residences were larger than private forests in general. Also the forest resources, as well as the stocks of standing timber were larger than in private forests. The growing stock has grown further, because increment has exceeded the fellings. The fellings and income of the forestry had been increasing. At the same time, the costs of forestry were increasing. The forest holdings were divided unevenly between the parishes. About 15% of the parishes had no forest income, while the annual income of 10% of them was over 100,000 Finnish marks. In average, the forest income coverd 21.8% of all income of the parishes. Thus, the amount of forest income influenced the height of the church taxes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

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article id 7332, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1936). Tutkimuksia männyn ja koivun runkomuodosta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 7332. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7332
English title: Studies on stem forms of Scots pine and Betula sp.

The stem form influences the value and volume of the stem. Sample trees in homogenous mixed stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Betula sp. were measured to define the stem form of the trees, and to develop research methods. The height of butt swelling and the turning point of taper curve varies greatly. In Scots pine and Betula sp. it was typically between the 2/10 and 3/10 height of the tree. Consequently, the theoretical normal curves describing stem form, where the turning point of taper curve is situated under the breast height diameter, are not entirely generally applicable. There was a correlation between the base curve and the form of actual taper curve of the stem. The form of the top of the stem depends on the structure and dimensions of the crown. The most reliable measuring point to define taper curve would be a diameter that is above butt swelling, near the turning point of the taper curve. Length of the crown can be used to deduce the form of the top of the stem. According to the study, the volume tables could be based on diameter on breast height, slenderness of the stem (D0,25h:h) and length of the crown. Age of the tree and position in the stand influence stem form, but the forest site type seemed not to have clear effect on the stem form.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

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article id 7302, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1934). Karsimisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 25 article id 7302. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7302
English title: The silvicultural influences of pruning.

Pruning growing trees influences tree growth and value of the wood and yield of timber of the stand. Pruning living branches create open wounds on the stems that can risk the growth of tree species that are vulnerable to injuries. For instance, pruning has been shown to cause decay in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), while Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) can quickly heal over the branch scars. Pruning of living branches reduces the crown, the effect of which remains small if only the lowest branches are pruned. Pruning of dry branches has little effect on the health of the tree. The main objective of pruning is to improve the quality of timber. Knottiness decreases strength and appearance of timber. Pruning increases the yield of knot-free sapwood, which is especially valuable in veneer timber. Pruning is, therefore, at present most suitable for birch and aspen which are used in veneer industry. In both species pruning should be directed mainly to dry branches.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

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article id 7255, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1929). Untersuchungen über die Schlankheit der Kiefer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 42 article id 7255. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7255
English title: Studies on the slenderness of the pine.

In practical forestry being able to divide the stem into timber assortments in the best possible way is very important.  Defining the decrease in diameter of the stem plays an important role in that. The article aims to define the slenderness as the relation of the tree height to its breast height diameter. The decrease in diameter is taken into account by measurements of diameter above the breast height. The study is based on the measurements conducted in 1924 for the inventory of forest resources of Finland.

The influence of the stand density to the relationship between height of the pine and the breast height diameter is smaller in the more fertile sites than in the less fertile sites. In the more dense stands are pines more slender than in the sparser stand on all forest types.  

 The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.
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article id 4630, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1953). Suhdannevaihteluista, erityisesti metsätalouden kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4630. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14045
English title: Effects of business cycles on forestry.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation introduces the principles of business cycles and describes how they have affected forestry in Finland.

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article id 4602, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1951). Avaussanat. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4602. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13998
English title: Opening words.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation includes the opening words for the course by Dr. M. Lappi-Seppälä

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article id 4537, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1938). Sekametsien kasvatuksesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4537. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13946
English title: Management of mixed forests.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes management of mixed forests.

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article id 4516, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1937). Karsimisesta arvopuun kasvatusta silmällä pitäen. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14094
English title: Pruning as a means to produce quality timber.

 

 

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