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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles by S. E. Multamäki

Category: Article

article id 7377, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1942). Kuusen taimien paleltuminen ja sen vaikutus ojitettujen soiden metsittymiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 7377. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7377
English title: Frost injuries of Norway spruce seedlings and their effect on afforestation of drained peatlands .

The aim of the investigation was to study natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in drained peatlands and frost injuries in seedlings, and to compare microclimates of the regeneration areas. The experiments included peatlands in Satakunta in Western Finland. Restocking of the areas with seedlings and their survival was followed in 1935-40 at sample plots that were mainly 1 are large.

Susceptibility to freezing was shown to be dependent on the stage of development of the shoots. Shoots that have just begun to grow contain little water, and withstand better freezing temperatures than shoots in later stages of growth. Damages to the seedlings were observed when the temperatures decreased to -2.8–-4.3 °C. The most severe damage to a seedling was caused by the death of the leading shoot by spring frost.

Norway spruce regenerates easily on moist peatlands, but peatlands with dry surface tend to have little or no seedlings. The species regenerated better in marshy sites than correspondingly fertile mineral soil sites. However, it needs shelter to avoid frost damage. On clear cut spruce swamp the undergrowth spruce seedlings that were left in the site got severe frost damage. If the site had birch (Betula sp.) coppice or undergrowth, spruce seedlings survived in their shelter depending on the height and density of the birch trees. To be effective, the protective forest should have relatively even crown cover. Young spruce seedlings could grow well even under relatively dense birch stand.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7343, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1939). Kuusen kylvöstä ja istutuksesta metsitettävillä soilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 7343. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7343
English title: Sowing and planting of Norway spruce in drained peatlands in Finland.

The drained peatlands regenerate usually well, and artificial regeneration by sowing or planting has been rare. Field trials of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were established in northern Satakunta in Western Finland in three drained peatlands in 1934. Sowing trials of Norway spruce consisted of patch and broadcast sowed sample sites in treeless bogs and under protective forest. The seedlings of spruce were planted either under protective forest or in treeless peatland.

The results show that artificial regeneration of Norway spruce succeeds best under protective forest. The best tree species for upper storey is Betula sp. which grows fast and controls growth of ground vegetation. The peat is relatively decomposed on those peatlands that are suitable for spruce, and breaking of the surface of the peat is not recommended. In the sowing trials, breaking of the upper layer of the peat caused frost heaving, cracking of the dried surface and sticking of mud in the seedlings in the patch sown sample site. The shoot and root growth of seedlings of the broadcast sown site was better than seedlings of the patch sown site. The planted spruce seedlings seemed to be more susceptible for spring frost than the seedlings in the sown site. The plants of seed origin succeeded in general better than the planted seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7311, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1934). Metsäojien mittojen ja muodon muuttumisesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 34 article id 7311. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7311
English title: Changing of dimensions and form of forest ditches after the drainage in Finland.

The aim of the study was to investigate how the drain network and dimensions of ditches change after the drainage. The studied drained peatlands were situated in the municipalities of Parkano and Virrat in Central Finland. The ditches were in average 15 and 17 years old. The depth and width in the surface of the peatland were in average one quarter smaller than after the drainage. The width at the bottom of the ditch has, however, almost doubled. Peat had sunken more in peatlands with thick peat layer and higher humidity. Sinking of peat influenced the depth of the ditches. The volume of the ditches decreased about 30%. The decrease of the ditches by the drying and sinking of the peat was greater than the increase caused by erosion.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7094, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1923). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden metsänkasvusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 7094. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7094
English title: Studies on the growth of drained peatlands in Finland.

Only about 24,000 hectares of peatlands have been drained in the state lands by the 1921. The aim of this study was to define how much the growth of the trees in the drained peatland revives. Sample plots were measured in previously drained peatlands that had sufficient Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stand. A stem analysis was performed to one of the sample trees. The evenness of the stands was dependent on how evenly the peatlands had dried when the stand was regenerated. Thus, the sample stands were not always fully stocked. However, they had capacity to develop towards evenly structured forests as the peatlands continued to dry further. The diameter and height growth of the dried peatlands have corresponded the similar stands in mineral soil sites. In trees that have grown stunted in the peatlands, the diameter growth seems to increase faster than the height growth. The volume growth is slightly smaller than in the similar mineral soil sites due to less favorable stem form. After the draining, the roots of the trees continued to grow from the old branches of root, but start then to form new roots. When the ground water level drops, the root layer grows deeper.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7068, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1921). Tilastoa Pohjois-Suomen metsä- ja suotyypeistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 7068. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7068
English title: Statistics of forest and peatland site types in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyyppi; suotyyppi
English keywords: forest site type; peatland type

The vegetation of the forest and peatland site types in Northern Finland differ markedly from those in Southern Finland, also the vegetation of the subtypes in the north is distinctive. A line survey was conducted to study the distribution of forest and peatland site subtypes in Northern Finland.

The vegetation of rich grass-herb forest types differs little from the poorer grass-herb forest types in Northern Finland. They abundance decrease towards north. The main fresh mineral soil sites are Myrtillus site type, Hylocomnium-Myrtillus site type and their paludified forms. The abundance of the fresh mineral soil sites decreased towards north so that in Kemi the proportion was 20.5 and in Lapland 12.0%. A transition from the fresh to the drier site types is gradual. The Vaccinium site type that is dominant in the south, is rare in the north, where it is replaced by Empetrum-Vaccinium type. The proportion of dry forest sites increase towards north, in average their distribution is 25% of the lands. There are numerous subtypes, which can be merged in to four main site types: Calluna, Cladina-Calluna, Myrtillus-Cladina and Cladina site type. The peatlands are more abundant in the southern part of the study area. The most common peatland types are pine swamps.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7046, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1920). Suomen soista ja niiden metsittämisestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 7046. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7046
English title: Peatlands and their afforestation in Finland.

Peatlands amount to more than a third of the land area of Finland. The article includes a review on the peatland complexes and types, their distribution in Finland and how different peatland types suit for draining. Finnish peatlands have typically relatively shallow peat layer, which influences how they suit for agricultural lands or forestry.  Systematic draining of peatlands has been practiced since 1908 in the state forests. In 1908-1919 Metsähallitus (Forest Service) drained slightly over 200,000 hectares of peatlands, and the forest companies are estimated to have drained about similar area. An estimate of how big proportion of the peatlands would be worth draining is deduced, based on existing statistics of the state lands, and on a line survey. In the state lands 35% of the peatlands, about 2 million hectares, are worth draining. If an estimate of the figures of private lands is added, of the total of 5 million hectares of peatlands in Finland about 54% is suitable for draining.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7020, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1919). Tutkimuksia metsien tilasta Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 7020. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7020
English title: Studies on state of forests in Savo and Karelia.

A strip survey was made to define the forest and peatland site class distribution and the condition of the forests in Savo and Karelia in central and eastern parts of Finland. According to the survey, 24% of the forested lands are peatlands. Fresh mineral soil sites (26%) were the most common mineral soil site type. Intermediately dry forest soil sites covered 22% of the area, forest sites with grass-herb vegetation 12,79%, rich grass-herb forest soil sites 3,16% and dry forest soil sites 9,59% of the forested area. The most common tree species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39%, Betula sp., 26%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), 18%, and grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), 10% of the forest land. The article includes a review about the wood harvesting in the forests, and their present silvicultural state. According to the study, about 30% of the forested lands (not including peatlands) were unproductive; mostly mixed alder and birch stands of poor quality or open lands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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