Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by Erkki Laitakari

Category: Article

article id 7492, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1959). The first half century of the Society of Forestry in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 2 article id 7492. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7492

The Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) published a special issue of Acta Forestalia Fennica on the occasion of its 50th anniversary on April 29th 1959. It comprises as series of articles surveying the evolution of different branches of forest research in Finland. It also has a brief history of the Society.

The Society was founded in April 1909 at a time when the highest education of forestry was moved from the Forestry Institute at Evo to the University of Helsinki. The intention was to get the teaching onto a scientific basis and to enable graduate study leading to an advanced degree. The Society was founded in a meeting called together by professor A.K. Cajader, who stated that domestic forestry must be supported by domestic research. The first publications of the society were published in the same year, the first issues of the series Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1914 and a new series Silva Fennica in 1926. A third series, Communicationes Forestales appeared in 1928–1933. During the 50 years, the Society has given research grants to scientist worth 4,687,900 marks.

The history of the Society of Forestry is published in Finnish in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 1.

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article id 7491, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1959). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran ensimmäinen puolivuosisata. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 1 article id 7491. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7491
English title: The first half century of the Society of Forestry in Finland .

The Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) published a special issue of Acta Forestalia Fennica on the occasion of its 50th anniversary on April 29th 1959. It comprises as series of articles surveying the evolution of different branches of forest research in Finland. It also has a brief history of the Society.  

The Society was founded in April 1909 at a time when the highest education of forestry was moved from the Forestry Institute at Evo to the University of Helsinki. The intention was to get the teaching onto a scientific basis and to enable graduate study leading to an advanced degree. The Society was founded in a meeting called together by professor A.K. Cajader, who stated that domestic forestry must be supported by domestic research. The first publications of the society were published in the same year, the first issues of the series Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1914 and a new series Silva Fennica in 1926. A third series, Communicationes Forestales appeared in 1928–1933. During the 50 years, the Society has given research grants to scientist worth 4,687,900 Finnish marks. 

The history of the the Finnish Society of Forest Science is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 2.

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article id 7416, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1954). Nuori Hannikainen metsäpoliitikkona. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 4 article id 7416. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7416
English title: The young Hannikainen as a forest politician.
English keywords: biography; forestry

The article revises the accomplishments of professor Peter Woldemar Hannikainen, the former director of Forest Service of Finland, in the development of forest sector in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

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article id 7318, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1935). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1932-1934. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 7318. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7318
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934. In the meetings of the society were held four presentations which are shortly summarized in the article.

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article id 7317, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1935). Tutkimuksia metsikön ja kasvupaikan vaikutuksesta kuusen rungon kelpoisuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 7317. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7317
English title: Studies on the influence of stand and forest site type on the quality of Norway spruce stem.

Healthy, straight, more or less free from branches and slowly tapering stems are good raw material for woodworking industry. The aim of the study was to investigate, from the stand point of forest management, the influence of stand and forest site type on the technical quality of the stems. Sample plots were measured in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands in Eastern Finland. Norway spruce growing in a stand with closed crowns developed thin branches and self-pruned, if the stand was dense in the early stages. The decisive time for the stand is, therefore, when it is at seedling stage and young stand. The stems are more branchy if the stand has been planted. The adequate planting density is discussed based on earlier studies. The sufficient density seems to be achieved when the spacing is at maximum two meters. When the stems are branchless up to four meters, thinning of spruce stand does not affect knottiness or stem form. A sparsely stocked, knotty young stand does not produce good-quality timber even if the stand is later dense. Selective thinning from above can be used to improve the quality of the wood.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

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article id 7315, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Koivun juuristo. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 7315. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7315
English title: The root system of birch (Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa).
English keywords: mixed stand; forest site type

About 40% forest in Finland are mixed stands that have birch (Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa) as one of the species. The aim of this research was to study the structure of root system of birch and compare it to the other main tree species in Finland.

The root systems were dug out and measured in 28 sample plots in Southern and Central Finland, representing different forest site types. Birch roots correspond 30‒100% of the volume of the stem, the largest root systems being in the sandy soils or peatlands. Also the longest lateral roots can be found at these sites. The size variation of root system of birch is larger than in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and the vertical root system is in general smaller in birch. Birch seems to be better than pine able to adapt its root system to the existing conditions. The smallest root systems were found in the good forest site types, but the roots grow in the good sites denser than in the poor sites. The lateral roots of the main tree species in Finland, birch, Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grow in different depths, which decreases the competition between the species. This finding gives support to cultivation of mixed stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

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article id 7313, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Männyn kääpiöversojen ja kasvainten välisistä suhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 36 article id 7313. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7313
English title: The relations between main and short shoots of Scots pine.
English keywords: needle; short shoot

The number of short shoots and the quality of the shoots and needles in 19 shoots of 15 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was measured. Usually Scots pine short shoots have two needles. Three-needle short shoots were found in all sample shoots but one. They were most common in fast-growing trees and the shoots in the main stem. One-needle short shoots were relatively rare. In most cases the second needle had withered. The length of the needles was 19‒80 mm, and most common lengths were 30‒50 mm. The width of the needles was in average 0.5‒1.94 mm. There was correlation between the length of the shoot and the length of the needles.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

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article id 7278, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Neljännesvuosisata Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toimintaa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 7278. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7278
English title: A quarter of a century with the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences.

The Finnish Society of Forest Sciences was established in 1908 to promote forest research in the country. It was deemed that the progress of Finnish forestry required forest research adapted to the local conditions. The article describes the establishment, first years of the society and the consolidation of its role and activities. The operation, finances and the society is described.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

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article id 7271, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1933). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1930-1932. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 5 article id 7271. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7271
English title: Activities of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1930‒1932.
The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1930‒1932. In the meetings of the society were held 32 presentations, which are included in the article. The topics of the presentations are listed by the name of the speakers.
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article id 7262, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1930). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1920-1930. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 7262. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7262
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1920‒1930.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1920‒1930. In the meetings of the society were held 108 presentations, which are included in the article. The topics of the presentations are listed by the name of the speakers and by the topics.

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article id 7247, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1929). Über die Fähigkeit der Bäume sich gegen Sturmgefahr zu schützen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 34 article id 7247. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7247
English title: The capability of trees to protect themselves against storms.

The article discusses the adaptation mechanisms of the trees against storms or stormy winds. Two main aspects are revealed: the adjustments of stem and crone and the adjustments of the root system.

The shorter the stem the lower the danger of windfall or windbreak. The wind load of a tree depends on where it is situated; on the open field the wind is much stronger than in closed stand. The tree adjusts its height on the situation: where the wind load is high the trees remain smaller. A tree adjusts its crone also depending on the wind. The branches of spruce are relatively thin and very flexible. An alone standing trees have a flat or umbrella-like crone. Trees with a deep-going main root (tap root) are best protected against windfalls. When there is no tap root, the horizontal roots need to strengthen to offer the needed support.

The protection from windfalls is an important question in the practical forestry. Knowing the factors affecting the wind tolerance of a tree the forest management can be planned to support them.  

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

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article id 7211, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1929). Die Wurzelforschung in ihrer Beziehung zur praktischen Forstwirtschaft. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 7211. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7211
English title: Research on roots on their relationship to practical forestry.

The growth of a tree or a forest stand can be only fully understood when the form, encroachment and development of the root s in different environments are known. Research on roots has already yielded in practical silvicultural improvements and the purpose of this study is to discuss different factors about the roots.  

The literature review deals with the depth of root system, extent of it, the relation between root system and the soil structure, the form and volume of roots and the phenomenon where roots from several tree individuals grow together.

The PDF contains the article also in Finnish.   

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article id 7210, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1927). Männyn juuristo: morfologinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 7210. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7210
English title: Morphological study of Scots pine root system.

The root systems of 192 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample trees were dug out and measured in Säyneinen, Rautavaara and Pielijsäjvi in the Central Finland and Orivesi, Teisko and Hämeenkyrö in the Southern Finland. The volume of root system of Scots pine was always smaller than the stem, varying from 15% to 94% of the stem volume. The ratio is smaller in dense stands. The type of soil of the site affects how the central root system (tap root and the inner vertical roots) develop. This reflect the adaptability of the root system to different growth conditions. The root system may, for instance, substitute the tap root with stronger inner roots.

PDF includes a summary in English.

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article id 7049, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1920). Tutkimuksia sääsuhteiden vaikutuksesta männyn pituus- ja paksuuskasvuun. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 7049. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7049
English title: Studies on the effect of weather conditions on diameter and height growth of Scots pine.
English keywords: diameter growth; height growth

The height and diameter growth measured from different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Southern Finland was compared with meteorological information. The height growth benefits from warm weather in late summer in the previous year, and especially from high temperatures in June. Precipitation or the temperature in the same year did not affect the height growth. Diameter growth benefits from high temperatures in the spring of the same year, especially in April. High precipitation in the spring has in some cases negative impact on the diameter growth. The different combinations of precipitation and temperature can have variable effects on tree growth. In the diameter growth was seen a periodicity that coincides with sunspots.

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article id 4742, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1967). Akateemikko V. Sukatšev in memoriam. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4742. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14452
English title: Academic V. Sukatšev in memoriam.
Original keywords: nekrologit
English keywords: necrology

The paper is necrology of the known Russian botanist and scientist V. Sukatšev (1881 –1967), who was in Finland well-known for his interest in the forest type theory and his work on plant communities. He published books, for example, on dendrology and the doctrine of plant communities.

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article id 4689, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1960). Metsähallinnon vuosisataistaival 1859-1959. Silva Fennica no. 107 article id 4689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14130
English title: A century of Finnish State forestry 1859-1959.

This book deals with the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State forests of Finland, since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time. Attention is paid especially to the following topics: the area of State Forests and its changes; the organisation of Forest Administration; the promotion of transportation conditions for State forestry; silvicultural treatment of State Forests, their management and commercial activity; the Forest Service as an employer; the State Schools for training forest foremen; the activity of the Forest Service as regards private forests.

The PDF includes a short summary in English, a more comprehensive history of the Forest Service is published in Silva Fennica no. 112.

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article id 4699, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1961). A century of Finnish state forestry 1859-1959. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4699. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14230

This paper is a short presentation in English of the activities of the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State Forests of Finland, during its first century. The article gives a short history of the Forest Service and description of the forest property, development of the Forest Service, forest conservation work and business activity of the organization.

A complete presentation of the history and activities of the organization since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time is published in Finnish in Silva Fennica No. 107.

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article id 4674, category Article
Erkki Kivinen, Erkki Laitakari. (1958). Helsingin yliopiston maatalous-metsätieteellisen tiedekunnan vaiheita 50-vuotiselta taipaleelta. Silva Fennica no. 95 article id 4674. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14110
English title: 50 years of education in agriculture, forestry and home economics at the University of Helsinki.

Agricultural education in Finland begun in 1840, when an agricultural college started its activity in the estate of Mustiala in Southern Finland. A decree published in 1896 stated that the highest agricultural education should be transferred from Mustiala to the University of Helsinki, and two professorships and an assistant professorship should be established. The first professor of agricultural chemistry was appointed in 1900, and the work to compile the scheme for the agricultural university studies was started. By 1957 the personnel had increased to ten professorships and 23 docents.

In 1924 the section of agriculture of the Philosophical faculty was changed to the Faculty of agriculture and forestry. By the spring 1957 a total of 2,180 Bachelor of Agriculture Examinations, 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations and 1,198 Candidate’s Examinations had been attained. Experimental farms were established in Viik an in Malminkartano in 1931, however, the areas were in the beginning leased to the Prison Administration. The farm in Viik had also laboratories for research purposes. In 1949 it was decided that also the agricultural institutes should be placed in Viik.

The highest forest education was established in a forest college in Evo in Central Finland in 1862. In 1900 it was suggested that also the highest forest education should be transferred to the University of Helsinki. It was affirmed by a decree in 1906. In 1957 there was 8 professors and 15 lecturers in the faculty. A large adjustment in the content of the examination was performed in 1951. Up to spring 1957 a total of 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations was achieved in the faculty.

The education of home economics commenced in the faculty of agriculture and forestry in 1946.

The article includes an English summary.

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article id 4543, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1938). Metsän uudistamisesta laihoilla kangasmailla. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4543. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13952
English title: Forest regeneration on poor forest sites.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest regeneration on poor forest sites.

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article id 4542, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1938). Eräitä metsän uudistamisessa huomioon otettavia näkökohtia. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4542. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13951
English title: Forest regeneration.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes factors that should be taken into account in forest regeneration. 

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article id 4500, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1937). Laatupuun kasvattamisesta. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4500. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13910
English title: Production of good quality timber.

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes methods of forest management that lead to production of qood quality timber, needed in the saw industry.

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