Current issue: 54(2)
Under compilation: 54(3)
The effective heating values of the above and below ground biomass components of mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh), silver birch (B. pendula Roth), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), black alder (A. glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) were studied. Each sample tree was divided into wood, bark and foliage components. Bomb calorimetry was used to determine the calorimetric heating values.
The species is a significant factor in the heating value of individual tree components. The heating value of the wood proper is highest in conifers. Broadleaved species have a higher heating value of bark than conifers. The species factor diminishes when the weighted heating value of crown, whole stems or stump-root-system are considered. The crown material has a higher heating value per unit weight in comparison with fuelwood from small-sized stems or whole trees. The additional advantages of coniferous crown material are that it is non-industrial biomass resource and is readily available. The variability of both the chemical composition and the heating value is small in any given tree component of any species. However, lignin, carbohydrate and extractive content were found to vary from one part of the tree to another and to correlate with the heating value
The heating values of wood, inner and outer bark, and foliage components of seven small-size tree species (Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Betula pubescens Erhr., B. pendula Roth, Alnus incana (L.) Moench, A. glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Populus tremula L.) were studied. Significant differences were found between species within each component. However, the differences between species for weighted stem, crown and whole-tree biomass are very small. The weighted heating value of the crown mass is slightly higher than that of the stem in all species. The heating value of stem, crown and whole-tree material was found to increase with increasing latitude.
The effective heating value of wood correlated best with the lignin content, inner bark with carbohydrate, and outer bark with carbohydrates and the extractives soluble in alkalic solvents. It is suggested that the determination of the heating value might be used as an indicator of the cellulose content of coniferous wood.
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