The distribution of compression wood in relation to eccentric growth and development of stem straightness was studied in a 22-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in central Sweden that was established with container-grown seedlings. Stem straightness was measured on the same 440 trees in 1986 and 1997. The number of stems with straight base sections increased from 60% in 1986 to 89% in 1997. Measurements of 72 sample trees in 2001 showed that 96% of the trees had developed straight stem bases. External geometry data of the logs was obtained with a Rema 3D log scanner. A sub-sample of 16 trees was randomly selected for analysis of compression wood distribution and eccentricity measurements. From each tree, 11 discs were cut at every 60 cm along the stem. All discs, except one, contained compression wood. Compression wood and pith eccentricity was most pronounced near the stem base but not significantly correlated to basal sweep. Severe compression wood content was correlated to pith eccentricity and bow height. In general, correlations were better for the basal sections of the logs. Even though most trees were straight, they contained large amounts of compression wood. It is evident that eccentric growth and compression wood formation play major roles in the development of stem straightness. In several stems, a spiral compression wood distribution pattern was found. Reasons for this are discussed.