Landowner behavior is a major determinant of land use and land cover changes, an important consideration for policy analysts concerned with global change. Study of landowner behavior aids in designing more effective incentives for inducing land use and land cover changes to help mitigate climate change by reducing net greenhouse gas emissions. Afforestation, deforestation, reforestation, and timber harvest are the most frequent land management practices that influence forest carbon stocks and flux. Research studies provide estimates of how private landowners respond to market signals and government programs and how they alter land management. For example, landowners have tended to retain subsidized afforested stands well beyond program life in the United States, suggesting that similar programs for climate change mitigation could result in high rates of retention. At the same time, policy makers need to be aware that unintended consequences of policies can lead to significantly different outcomes than envisioned, including leakage possibilities.