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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles by Marja-Liisa Juntunen

Category: Research article

article id 305, category Research article
Anna-Maria Veijalainen, Marja-Liisa Juntunen, Arja Lilja, Helvi Heinonen-Tanski, Leo Tervo. (2007). Forest nursery waste composting in windrows with or without horse manure or urea – the composting process and nutrient leaching. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 305. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.305
In order to find the best management practices for forest nursery waste composting, organic waste was composted without or with horse manure or urea in six windrows for two years. The windrows were built in four consecutive years during 1999–2002. In 1999, no extra-nutrients were added to the windrow (N99). In 2000, urea fertilizer was used as a nitrogen source (U00). Despite this, the process did not function properly. In 2001, two windrows were built, one (H01) with and the other (N01) without horse manure. Horse manure slightly accelerated the heating process. Consequently, two windrows with more horse manure were built in 2002. One was aerated passively (H02) as earlier windrows, and the other was aerated forcedly (HA02). Horse manure and forced aeration were needed to keep the temperature above 55°C for long enough to ensure microbial hygiene of the material. The degradation of cellulose was greater during the curing stage. Nutrient leaching was low, although the additives increased leaching in conjunction with the inefficient process. The results showed that forest nursery waste alone is ineffective at raising the temperature of the compost, and degrades slowly due to its low nutrient and easily available carbon content. The best management practice for forest nursery waste composting is to use horse manure and aeration to ensure the heating process. Environmental contamination can be avoided by collecting the leachates. Further research is needed to evaluate the usability of the compost.
  • Veijalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Juntunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lilja, Finnish Forest Research Institute, PO Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heinonen-Tanski, Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environm. Sc., PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 592, category Research article
Marja-Liisa Juntunen. (2001). Use of pesticides in Finnish forest nurseries in 1996. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 592. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.592
In 1996 a questionnaire on seedling production and use of pesticides was sent to 33 forest nurseries in Finland. Twenty-eight nurseries answered the questionnaire; thus the survey covered about 80% of the Finnish production of forest seedlings. According to this study, the Finnish nurseries together are using about 1000 kilograms of pesticides (as active ingredient, a.i.) annually. The most used herbicide was terbutylazine (Gardoprim-Neste®), and half of the total amount of fungicide used was chlorothalonil (Bravo 500®). Three fourths of the insecticide products had permethrin as the active ingredient. The nurseries applied, on average, 1.7 kg pesticides (a.i.)/ha annually, although the amount varied considerably between nurseries. In production of container seedlings the highest mean amounts of pesticides were applied to pine seedlings (9.5 kg/ha) and the lowest to spruce seedlings (0.9 kg/ha). To the fields of bareroot seedlings the nurseries applied, on average, 3.9 kg pesticides (a.i.)/ha. Mean amounts of pesticide (a.i.) per 1000 seedlings grown in containers were almost the same for birch and pine production, 1.6 and 1.7 grams, respectively; for production of spruce seedlings the comparable values were less than 0.5 grams. For production of bareroot seedlings the nurseries used about four times more pesticides than for container seedlings.
  • Juntunen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marja-liisa.juntunen@metla.fi (email)

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