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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles by Matti Siren

Category: Research article

article id 10134, category Research article
Matti Sirén, Jari Ala-Ilomäki, Harri Lindeman, Jori Uusitalo, Kalle E.K. Kiilo, Aura Salmivaara, Ari Ryynänen. (2019). Soil disturbance by cut-to-length machinery on mid-grained soils. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10134. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10134
Highlights: The number of machine passes, volumetric water content in the mineral soil and the depth of the organic layer were the controlling factors for rut formation; The harvester rut depth was a good predictor of the forwarder rut formation; Changes in the penetration resistance were highest at depths of 20–40 cm.

Factors affecting soil disturbance caused by harvester and forwarder were studied on mid-grained soils in Finland. Sample plots were harvested using a one-grip harvester. The harvester operator processed the trees outside the strip roads, and the remaining residues were removed to exclude the covering effect of residues. Thereafter, a loaded forwarder made up to 5 passes over the sample plots. The average rut depth after four machine passes was positively correlated to the volumetric water content at a depth of 0–10 cm in mineral soil, as well as the thickness of the organic layer and the harvester rut depth, and negatively correlated with penetration resistance at depths of both 0–20 cm and 5–40 cm. We present 5 models to predict forwarder rut depth. Four include the cumulative mass driven over a measurement point and combinations of penetration resistance, water content and the depth of organic layer. The fifth model includes harvester rut depth and the cumulative overpassed mass and provided the best fit. Changes in the penetration resistance (PR) were highest at depths of 20–40 cm. Increase in BD and VWC decreased PR, which increased with total overdriven mass. After four to five machine passes PR values started to stabilize.

  • Sirén, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.siren@luke.fi (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6671-7624 E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@luke.fi
  • Lindeman, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.lindeman@luke.fi
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3793-1215 E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
  • Kiilo, Versowood, Teollisuuskatu 1, FI-11130 Riihimäki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.kiilo@versowood.fi
  • Salmivaara, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: aura.salmivaara@luke.fi
  • Ryynänen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.ryynanen@luke.fi
article id 10050, category Research article
Jori Uusitalo, Jari Ala-Ilomäki, Harri Lindeman, Jenny Toivio, Matti Siren. (2019). Modelling soil moisture – soil strength relationship of fine-grained upland forest soils. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 10050. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10050
Highlights: Penetration resistance (PR) is best predicted with moisture content (MC), bulk density and clay content; In fully saturated silty or clayey soils PR range from 600 to 800 kPa; The models can be linked with mobility models predicting rutting of forest machines.

The strength of soil is known to be dependent on water content but the relationship is strongly affected by the type of soil. Accurate moisture content – soil strength models will provide forest managers with the improved ability to reduce soil disturbances and increase annual forest machine utilization rates. The aim of this study was to examine soil strength and how it is connected to the physical properties of fine-grained forest soils; and develop models that could be applied in practical forestry to make predictions on rutting induced by forest machines. Field studies were conducted on two separate forests in Southern Finland. The data consisted of parallel measurements of dry soil bulk density (BD), volumetric water content (VWC) and penetration resistance (PR). The model performance was logical, and the results were in harmony with earlier findings. The accuracy of the models created was tested with independent data. The models may be regarded rather trustworthy, since no significant bias was found. Mean absolute error of roughly 20% was found which may be regarded as acceptable taken into account the character of the penetrometer tool. The models can be linked with mobility models predicting either risks of rutting, compaction or rolling resistance.

  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems Maarintie 6, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@luke.fi
  • Lindeman, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.lindeman@luke.fi
  • Toivio, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: toiviojenny@gmail.com
  • Siren, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems Maarintie 6, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.siren@luke.fi
article id 220, category Research article
Jani Heikkilä, Matti Sirén, Anssi Ahtikoski, Jari Hynynen, Tiina Sauvula, Mika Lehtonen. (2009). Energy wood thinning as a part of stand management of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 220. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.220
The effects of combined production of industrial and energy wood on yield and harvesting incomes, as well as the feasibility of energy wood procurement, were studied. Data for 22 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 21 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) juvenile stands in Central and Southern Finland were used to compare six combined production regimes to conventional industrial wood production. The study was based on simulations made by the MOTTI stand simulator, which produces growth predictions for alternative management regimes under various site and climatic conditions. The combined production regimes included precommercial thinning at 4–8 m dominant height to a density of 3000–4000 stems ha–1 and energy wood harvesting at 8, 10 or 12 m dominant height. Combined production did not decrease the total yield of industrial wood during the rotation period. Differences in the mean annual increment (MAI) were small, and the rotation periods varied only slightly between the alternatives. Combined production regime can be feasible for a forest owner if the price of energy wood is 3–5 EUR m–3 in pine stands, and 8–9 EUR m–3 in spruce stands. Energy wood procurement was not economically viable at the current energy price (12 EUR MWh–1) without state subsidies. Without subsidies a 15 EUR MWh–1 energy price would be needed. Our results imply that the combined production of industrial and energy wood could be a feasible stand management alternative.
  • Heikkilä, L&T Biowatti Oy, P.O. Box 738, FI-60101 Seinäjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jani.heikkila@biowatti.fi (email)
  • Sirén, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O.Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahtikoski, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O.Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hynynen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O.Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sauvula, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, School of Agriculture and Forestry, Tuomarniementie 55, FI-63700 Ähtäri, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehtonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O.Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

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