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Articles by Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt

Category: Research article

article id 1403, category Research article
Kristina Mjöfors, Monika Strömgren, Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt, Annemieke Ingrid Gärdenäs. (2015). Impact of site-preparation on soil-surface CO2 fluxes and litter decomposition in a clear-cut in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1403. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1403
Highlights: Disturbances of the soil did not lead to higher CO2 emissions from the soil; Heavy mixing of the soil lead to lower CO2 emissions from the soil; Buried needles and coarse roots decomposed faster than those on the surface; Abundance of δ15N decreased in needles and roots after site preparation.

Boreal forest soil contains significant amounts of organic carbon. Soil disturbance, caused for example by site preparation or stump extraction, may increase decomposition and thus lead to higher CO2 emissions, contributing to global warming. The aim of this study was to quantify responses of soil-surface CO2 fluxes (Rs) and litter (needle and root) decomposition rates following various kinds of soil disturbance commonly caused by mechanical site preparation and stump harvest. For this purpose four treatments were applied in a clear-cut site in central Sweden: i) removal of the humus layer and top 2 cm of mineral soil, ii) placement of a humus layer and 2 cm of mineral soil upside down on top of undisturbed soil, forming a double humus layer buried under mineral soil, iii) heavy mixing of the humus layer and mineral soil, and iv) no disturbance (control). Rs measurements were acquired with a portable respiration system during two growing seasons. To assess the treatments’ effects on litter decomposition rates, needles or coarse roots (Ø = 6 mm) were incubated in litterbags at positions they would be located after the treatments (buried, or on top of the soil). The results indicate that site preparation-simulating treatments have no effect or may significantly reduce, rather than increase, CO2 emissions during the following two years. They also show that buried litter decomposes more rapidly than litter on the surface, but in other respects the treatments have little effect on litter decomposition rates.

  • Mjöfors, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: kristina.mjofors@slu.se (email)
  • Strömgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Monika.stromgren@slu.se
  • Nohrstedt, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Hans-orjan.nohrstedt@slu.se
  • Gärdenäs, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Annemieke.gardenas@slu.se
article id 1265, category Research article
Eva Ring, Lars Högbom, Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt, Staffan Jacobson. (2015). Soil and soil-water chemistry below different amounts of logging residues at two harvested forest sites in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1265. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1265
Highlights: Soil-water chemistry, ground vegetation cover and water flux were affected by the amounts of logging residues stored on the ground after harvest; A strong response on soil-water chemistry was recorded at only one of the two sites; At the site showing a weak response, less residue remained after seven years in the treatments giving the most pronounced effects.
Logging residues (LR), i.e. tops, branches, and needles, are increasingly being harvested for energy production in Fennoscandia. These residues are temporarily piled on site awaiting transport. This study was undertaken to investigate effects on the soil and soil-water chemistry below different amounts of LR at two recently harvested coniferous sites in Sweden. Seven treatments were included and the studied amounts of LR ranged from no LR left on the ground to four times the estimated LR amount of the harvested stands. Two treatments included eight times the estimated LR amount of the harvested stands but here the LR were removed after 7 or 20 weeks. Soil-water samples were collected during the first six or seven growing seasons. Effects of treatment were detected in the soil water for 11 chemical variables at the northern site, and for the NO3- and Cl- concentrations at the southern site. The strongest response was generally found in the treatment with four times the estimated LR amount, for which the highest concentrations were recorded in most cases. In the first three seasons, the water flux through the LR decreased with an increasing amount of residue. Effects on the exchangeable store of Ca2+ in the mor layer and the upper 20 cm of the mineral soil was detected at both sites. At the northern site, the weight of the remaining LR, ground vegetation and all other material above the mor layer in the treatments with two and four times the estimated LR amount was roughly twice the corresponding weights at the southern site seven years after treatment. Although strong effects on the soil-solution chemistry were detected at one of the study sites, in the treatments corresponding to two and four times the estimated logging residue amount, the effect on the leaching from an entire regeneration area is likely to be relatively small given the percentage of the area hosting these logging residue amounts (ca. 20% after stem-only harvesting and 9% after fuel-adapted felling).
  • Ring, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: eva.ring@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Högbom, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.hogbom@skogforsk.se
  • Nohrstedt, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hans-orjan.nohrstedt@slu.se
  • Jacobson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: staffan.jacobson@skogforsk.se
article id 625, category Research article
Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt. (2000). Effects of soil scarification and previous N fertilisation on pools of inorganic N in soil after clear-felling of a Pinus sylvestris (L.) stand. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 3 article id 625. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.625
Previous analyses of soil water beneath mounds resulting from scarification have implied that this forestry measure increases leaching of inorganic N. However, more recent soil-water studies have not confirmed this assumption. The soil study presented here examined the pools of inorganic N in different microsites emanating from a simulated disc trenching, i. e. the mound with underlying soil, the furrow bottom and the undisturbed soil. The study was made five years after scarification. The mound itself with underlying soil had a larger pool of inorganic N than the undisturbed soil. This was mainly because of an increase in the embedded humus layer, thus implying a larger net N mineralisation and/or lower losses. However, when pools of inorganic N per hectare were calculated, taking into consideration that a scarified area comprises 25% mounds, 25% furrows and 50% undisturbed soil, there was no increase in pools of inorganic N when compared with an area not subjected to scarification. This observation supports the finding of the more recent soil-water studies mentioned, i. e., that leaching seems not to be influenced by soil scarification. The scarification was made as a split-plot treatment on main-plots in an old experiment with different N doses. Thus, the effect of the previous N fertilisation could also be evaluated. Two N doses were tested beside the unfertilised control: 720N (3 x 240 kg N ha–1 yr–1) and 1800N (3 x 600 kg N ha–1 yr–1). The last fertiliser application was made six years before the clearcutting and 13 years before the soil sampling. The previously fertilised main-plots had larger pools of inorganic N than the control plots.
  • Nohrstedt, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hans-orjan.nohrstedt@skogforsk.se (email)

Category: Research note

article id 679, category Research note
Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt, Gunnar Börjesson. (1998). Respiration in a forest soil 27 years after fertilization with different doses of urea. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 679. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.679
A number of previous studies have shown that N fertilization often reduces respiration in forest soils. However, the durability of this effect has not been fully explored. In this study, the response of soil respiration to a single fertilization with urea, applied 27 years earlier, was examined in a field experiment located in a stand of Pinus sylvestris in central Sweden. The doses that had been added were 120, 240 and 600 kg N ha–1. Samples were taken from the humus layer and the upper 7.5 cm of the mineral soil. Sieved samples were incubated in the laboratory. No effect of the previous fertilization on soil respiration was found, thus indicating that the reduction shown in earlier studies is not persistent. There was a tendency that the highest N dose had caused a higher N concentration and a lower C/N-ratio in the humus layer and a higher C concentration in the mineral soil.
  • Nohrstedt, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, S-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hans-orjan.nohrstedt@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Börjesson, Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7025, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

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