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Articles by Russell Grenfell

Category: Research article

article id 1279, category Research article
Andreas Kreutz, Tuomas Aakala, Russell Grenfell, Timo Kuuluvainen. (2015). Spatial tree community structure in three stands across a forest succession gradient in northern boreal Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1279. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1279
Highlights: We studied the tree community spatial structure in three 1.2-ha plots representing naturally developed northern boreal forests of varying ages; Spatial structure showed little differences between the mid-successional, late-successional and old-growth stands; The occurrence of Picea abies relative to Betula spp. indicated a mosaic-like spatial assembly; Mosaics are likely maintained by species-specific replacement, not reciprocal replacement as thought earlier.
Development of species composition during succession is well studied in natural boreal forests, but empirical assessments of how within-stand spatial structure develops in late-successional stages are few. Here, we quantified spatial patterns in three unmanaged stands consisting of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Betula pendula Roth (hereafter Betula spp.) in northern boreal Fennoscandia. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of small-scale spatial point patterns in three fully mapped 1.2-ha sample plots, representing different forest developmental stages: mid-successional, late-successional and old-growth forest. We used several variants of Ripley’s K-function to analyze the spatial point patterns along the successional gradient. Univariate analyses showed that mature trees of both species were either randomly distributed or clumped. P. abies saplings were clumped, and Betula spp. saplings occurred in a random or clumped manner. In the bivariate analyses, saplings were more likely to be found in the surroundings of mature trees of the same species, but occurred independent of the individuals of other tree species. Mature trees showed interspecific repulsion. Only modest differences occurred in the univariate patterns between the three successional stages, but in the bivariate analyses the most evident patterns, i.e. intraspecific attraction and interspecific repulsion, were stronger in the older successional stages. Overall, the studied stands appear structured as species-specific mosaics. These mosaics, along with mixed species composition, seem to be maintained by species self-replacement, which contrasts with findings from earlier studies.
  • Kreutz, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: andreas.kreutz@wald-rpl.de
  • Aakala, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0160-6410 E-mail: tuomas.aakala@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Grenfell, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: russell.grenfell@gmail.com
  • Kuuluvainen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.kuuluvainen@helsinki.fi
article id 89, category Research article
Russell Grenfell, Tuomas Aakala, Timo Kuuluvainen. (2011). Microsite occupancy and the spatial structure of understorey regeneration in three late-successional Norway spruce forests in northern Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 89. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.89
We compared microsite occupancy and three spatial structure of regeneration in three primeval late-successional Norway spruce dominated forests. One area lay in the middle boreal zone in Russia (Dvina-Pinega) where larger-scale disturbance from bark beetles and drought had occurred; the other areas lay in the northern boreal zone, one in Finland (Pallas-Ylläs) had encountered only small-scale disturbance, and one in Russia (Kazkim) had been influenced by fire. We mapped all spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens) trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm on 40 m 400 m plots, and those with DBH < 10 cm on 2 m or 4 m 400 m subplots. On the subplots we also recorded microsite occupancy and estimated microsite availability. At all study areas small seedlings (h < 0.3 m) of both spruce and birch were found largely on disturbance-related microsites. Birch saplings (h ≥ 1.3 m, DBH < 10 cm) disproportionately occupied deadwood-related microsites at Dvina-Pinega. In contrast, spruce saplings at all study areas, and birch saplings at Kazkim and Pallas-Ylläs, showed less, or no, preference. Our results thus confirm the importance of disturbance-related microsites for regeneration establishment, but not necessarily for long-term survival. No spatial segregation between the overstorey (DBH ≥ 10 cm) and saplings (h ≥ 1.3 m, DBH < 10 cm) or seedlings (h < 1.3 m) was found at Pallas-Ylläs or Kazkim, and only three instances of very weak segregation were found at Dvina-Pinega. This suggests that the regeneration gap concept may not be useful for describing the regeneration dynamics of primeval boreal forests.
  • Grenfell, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: russell.grenfell@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Aakala, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuuluvainen, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

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