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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles by Maiju Kosunen

Category: Research article

article id 1615, category Research article
Minna Blomqvist, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Tuula Kantola, Maiju Kosunen, Mervi Talvitie, Markus Holopainen. (2016). Impacts of natural enemies and stand characteristics on cocoon mortality of the pine sawfly Diprion pini in a Fennoscandian boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1615. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1615
Highlights: Annual cocoon mortality caused by natural enemies varied between 66% and 80% during the six-year study period, most of it caused by the family Ichneumonidae; Basal area, and coverage of lichen (Lichenes) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) best explained cocoon parasitism and predation; Combination of suitable stand characteristics, abiotic environmental factors, and incomplete control by natural enemies enabled pest species to extend its gradation phase.

We investigated the impact of natural enemies on the cocoon mortality of the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) during a six-year period in eastern Finland. The enemies were classified into parasitoids (insect families Chalcidoidea, Ichneumonidae, and Tachinidae), and predators (birds, small mammals, and insect families Elateridae and Carabidae). The appearance of D. pini was estimated as the intensity of annual defoliation. The impact of stand characteristics on the performance of parasitoids and predators was also investigated. Influence of the natural enemy complex on cocoon mortality of D. pini was nearly stable, but defoliation intensity slowly declined towards the end of the study period. Annual cocoon mortality by natural enemies varied between 66% and 80%. Our results verified that the most significant mortality factors were ichneumonid parasitoids and small mammals. Random Forest classification indicated that stand characteristics, such as basal area, and coverage of lichen (Lichenes) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) affected the performance of parasites and predators. We suggest that a combination of optimal stand characteristics, abiotic environmental factors and mild to moderate control by natural enemies acted as drivers, which drove the pine sawfly population to extended gradation. For future forest health management, detailed information on abiotic and biotic regulating factors, along with long-term monitoring campaigns for conifer sawflies are needed to adapt Fennoscandian forests to altered climatic and silvicultural conditions.

  • Blomqvist, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2328-8839 E-mail: minna.blomqvist@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paivi.lyytikainen-saarenmaa@helsinki.fi
  • Kantola, Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2475, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.kantola@helsinki.fi
  • Kosunen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: maiju.kosunen@helsinki.fi
  • Talvitie, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mervi.talvitie@dnainternet.net
  • Holopainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.holopainen@helsinki.fi

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