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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by V. Lihtonen

Category: Article

article id 7391, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1948). Tutkimuksia hakkuutoiminnan voimaperäisyyden tekijöistä ja tunnuksista pääasiallisesti valtion metsätaloudesta saadun aineiston valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 7391. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7391
English title: Investigations of factors and characteristics influencing the intensity of fellings in Finland.

The investigation studied the conditions on which business economics of large-scale forestry, mainly in the state forests, operates. It gives an overview on the economic geography of the state forestry in Finland, including the location of forest industry units and purchase of raw materials in relation to the state forests. The calculations are based on the of the financial performance of the districts of Forest Service in Finland.

The state forests are situated mainly in Northern Finland. Only 6% of the forests were situated nearer that 10 km from the nearest railroad, floating channel or business center. The size of forest districts decreases from north to south and from east to west, which affects the intensity of felling and the economic result of the districts. On the account of the remote situation of the forests of the state the amount of timber felled has been considerably below the growth of the forests. 

During the period of 1924-1943 annual cut in state forests decreased in Northern Finland, stayed in the same level in the east and increased in the west. Proportion of large-sized timber of the sales decreased, while the sales of piled pine wood, mining timber and sulphate wood increased. The economic result of state forests was in average modest, reflecting the economic result in the northern districts were the most state forests are located. However, the financial results of the state forests were not less good than those of other forests under similar conditions of economic geography. Proximity to floating channels and especially railways increased the effectivity of fellings. Railways made it possible to harvest also small timber that is difficult to transport by floating, thus increasing the felling volume. Finally, means to improve profitability of state forests are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7386, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1946). Valtakunnan metsätalouden järjestely metsiemme poistuman ja tuottohakkausmäärän valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 7386. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7386
English title: Regulation of Finnish forestry in the light of removal and rental cut.

This investigation concerns the felling volumes in Finland in 1935-1945 as regards future fellings. The statistics are divided in two time periods: 1935-1939, when there was an upward trend in the trade cycle, and 1940-1945, when the trade was disturbed by the Second World War. Fellings of household timber and for sales are presented separately.

Removal was annually in average 38.1 million cubic meters (cbm) without bark in 1935-1939, and 29.8 million cbm in 1940-1945. According to the statistics, felling volumes decreased by about one quarter after the period of 1935-1945. Reduction was largest in private and company forests, but smaller in the state forests. The increment balance for the 1935-1945 shows an excess of growth that gives an accumulated yield of 24.4 million cbm.

In private forests the cut is about half as large as the growth of the standing stock due to the poor silvicultural condition of the forests. Private forests account for about ¾ of the total forest area in Finland. In the state lands the cut is 130% of the growth. The report introduces also rental cut, a method developed by the writer, which defines the volume to be cut aiming at the same time to optimise the future increase of the yield. The principle is to preserve the young and vigorous stands, while cutting stands that have low growth.

According to the statistics, the felling volume of private forests has followed the variations in demand. It seems likely that in the coming years the fellings will not be kept within the limits calculated by the rental cut. Consequently, the reserve formed during the war will be utilized. To meet the demand of wood, forest management must be improved and preference should be given to regeneration fellings. Improving transportation systems, such as roads, would give access to forest resources that are now difficult to harvest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7382, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1944). Piirteitä metsätalouden järjestelyn rakennusmuodoista Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 7382. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7382
English title: Review on forest management in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous
English keywords: forest management; forestry

The article gives a detailed review on the history and principles of forest management in Finland from the 19th century to the beginning of 21th century. Organized forest management begun in Finland in the middle of 19th century. The first method applied in Finland was based on annual cutting area and mainly used in state forests. By the beginning of 20th century saw-timber selection became the most usual felling method. Gradually the main principle changed to forest management by stands and revision of forest working plan.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7363, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1942). Puuston hakkuuarvosta ja sen määräämisestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 10 article id 7363. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7363
English title: Determination of felling value.

The article discusses use of felling value in determining the value of growing stock. It has been argued that use of felling value to calculate value for a forest holding usually leads to too high values. Consequently, when setting a price for growing stock, felling value should be applied only for such parts of the property that can be sold immediately at a current price.

The article describes in detail assessment of the felling value, first using timber assortments of the stand, and second, by conducting the felling value using parameters affecting the value, such as volume and tree species of the stand. An assessment method  was developed to calculate the value by using structure of a cubic metre of timber in a stand. The structure was determined using data of the national forest inventory in Finland. Finally, the article discusses application of the method.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4603, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1951). Suurten mittasuhteiden työmaita. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4603. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13999
English title: Large scale worksites.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses forest resources and felling potential of the state forests in different parts of the country, and how centralized fellings could be arranged. Most potential for increasing fellings is in Northern Finland.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4598, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1949). Piirteitä valtion metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 66 article id 4598. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9088
English title: Forestry in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a review on state forests of Finland. The aim of the review is to describe the state and management of the state forests. Low revenue of the stat forests has been criticised, and misunderstandings have led to economic policy that has had negative impacts on state forestry.

The history of forest ownership of the state begins from 1400th century when Finland was part of Sweden. The article describes in detail the different stages in ownership of state forests and development of forest administration.

Forest Service was established in 1859. In 1949 it had two departments, a private forest department and a state forest department, and four local conservancies, Peräpohjola, Ostrobothnia, Western Finland and Eastern Finland. The forests were managed according to a business plan, which was based on a forest survey and a long term silvicultural working plan. The business plan gave a basis for annual working plans.

The state forests are mainly situated far from sites of forest industry and large human settlements. This affects demand and prices of wood. Especially demand of small diameter timber has been low. Floating is the main means of transport of the timber. The article describes in detail the forest resources of state forests, forest management practices and changes in state forestry. Suggestions to improve the profitability of state forestry are given. These include, for instance improving transport infrastructure and the productivity of forestry.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4581, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1945). Metsäteollisuusyhtiöiden metsistä ja niiden hakkuista. Silva Fennica no. 61 article id 4581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9085
English title: Forests of woodworking industry and the fellings carried out in them.

The aim of this treatise is to describe forests owned by timber companies, their area and position, the quality of forests, the condition of the forests, and fellings carried out during the World War II.

Area of the company-owned forest was 1,95 million hectares, 1,64 million hectares of which was productive and 0,31 hectares inferior forest soil, not including the areas lost after the war. Most of the forests were situated in remote regions. Average volume of the tree stands was slightly larger than in farm-owned forests. Fellings counted for 84% of the growth of the forests.

During the war  the state set felling quotas for both company, private and state forests. It was widely discussed how well they were met by the different owner groups. According to the statistics, the companies had followed relatively closely their cutting plans in peace years. Cuttings were highest in 1939, when the war begun. In the war years 1940-43, lack of workforce, horses and cars for transport complicated logging. The fellings increased again during truce after Winter War. Especially demand for small timber increased during the war. Felling of firewood increased in all the owner groups, in particular in the private forests that were situated near settlements. in general fellings were higher in forests that were easiest to reach.

During the war the companies acquired timber more from their own forests. The fellings from company forests were in war years 70% of those in peace years. The article concludes that companies fulfilled the requirements as well as it was possible in the circumstances.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4471, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1933). Metsätalouden metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu : pääasiassa yksityismetsätaloutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica no. 30 article id 4471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9043
English title: Forestry bookkeeping from the point of view of private forestry.

As the use and value of forests have increased, forests have been managed more as a business. Financial bookkeeping defines the production costs of wood, costs of forest management work, investments in forest improvement, taxes and administrative costs, income from the sales of forest products etc. Bookkeeping reports the annual costs and income in the forestry, but does not give information of the future profits or appropriate organization of the economy of forestry.

The author introduces a system that he calls “metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu” (silvicultural monitoring), which would give economic information of the forestry, and could also replace a forest management plan in the private forests. The bookkeeping system will list in detail the volumes and areas of fellings and silvicultural measures in different years, and deduce the sustainability of the use of forests and future incomes in forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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