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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by Rihko Haarlaa

Category: Article

article id 5166, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1982). Tervalepän kuitujen pituus. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5166. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15081
English title: Fibre length in common alder.

A material consisting of 21 common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) trees from 11 stands was collected. From each stem discs were sawn by 2 m interval. Samples were taken of the discs from various distances from pith. They were macerated and the average fibre length was based on 50 observations.

The fibre length increased significantly from the pith to the disc surface. The increase was approximately similar at various heights of the tree. The tree characteristics had only minor effect. However, near the pith the increase in fibre length was higher in trees with wide growth rings than in other trees. Near the disc surface the growth rate had no effect. In typical pulpwood bolts the average length was 800–950 μm which corresponds well to the data given in the literature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4890, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). Maaston vaikutuksesta metsäteiden rakennukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4890. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14728
English title: Effect of terrain on forest road construction.

As a subproblem in the joint Nordic Terrain-Machine Project the requirements set by forest road construction on the terrain classifications were studied during the summer 1973 in ten operations, in which either a bulldozer or an excavator method was used.

The most important terrain factors of the ground factors affecting the construction time of the road base were the so-called depth index and the moisture content of the soil, and in addition to these the amount of stumps as a ground roughness factor. These variables explained, however, only a rather minor part of the wide variation in the construction output of the practical operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4843, category Article
Unto Silvennoinen, Rihko Haarlaa. (1971). Metsätraktoreiden liikkuvuus lumessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4843. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14645
English title: The mobility of logging tractors on snow.

The mobility of logging tractors was tested in the winter 1969 on difficult snow conditions to gather information for planning of logging operations and for logging machinery design. The tractors tested were Clark Ranger 666, Timberjack C, Valmet Terra, Ford Brunett 5000, Fiskars 510, BM-Volvo SM 660, BM Volvo SM 661, Ford Country 6, MF-Robur I and BM-Boxer T-350.

According to the results, there is a preference of tracked vehicles in difficult snow conditions compared to wheeled tractors. Ford Country with long and bearing full-tracks proved to have the best mobility. On downhill grades it was found significant differences between three-quarter-track-tractors and skidders, although the performance on level ground and uphill grades was relatively similar. The tracked vehicles can easier move on the packed snow layer and reach a higher speed.

The driving speed does not increase significantly until the density of snow has entirely changed through getting wet. Wet top layer of snow affects positively on driving, because it increases packing of the snow. Increasing density of the snow improves especially the mobility of broad-tired wheeled tractors. To be able to predict the driving speed of a tractor in winter working conditions one must know the depth of the snow layer and the density of the snow and the grade of the slope. In addition, the passages on the same route and the packing of the snow must be regarded.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Silvennoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4820, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1970). Ideaalinäkemys metsätyöorganisaatioiden kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4820. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14609
English title: The concept of ideal systems in design of forestry work organizations.

The most effective work organization will be used as a goal in minimizing of logging costs. Some type of problem approach is usually utilized. The concept of the ideal system offers a possibility to get guidance in this difficult task. The idea of an ideal system is based on the fact that an ideal system, even imagined, can be utilized for any purpose. There are checklists in handbooks to accomplish the four existing steps: define of function, design ideal, develop optimum and deliver results.

In this paper two special cases are taken up to illustrate the concept itself, and it’s use in design of forestry work organizations. There were found no such reasons which could limit or even prevent the use of this method for forest technological purposes. That is why the author believes the method to give better results than any other customary approach.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7562, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). The effect of terrain on the output in forest transportation of timber. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 128 article id 7562. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7562

The first part of the study includes a summary of conclusions from five earlier reports dealing with terrain transportation costs, effect of terrain, load, snow and additional machine components on the mobility of forest tractors, and the distance a vehicle has to move in forest transportation of timber. In the second part of the study the effect of these separate factors on the transport output have been analysed on the basis of simulating a transportation of 3,000 loads by computer.

It was concluded that no specific terrain factor had a dominating effect on any component of the forwarding output. However, many terrain-factor combinations with a nonsignificant effect on the mobility and also on the forwarding output were identified. The most significant factors affecting the output were the size of load and the distance driven during the cycle.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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