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Articles by Eero Malmivaara

Category: Article

article id 4833, category Article
Eero Malmivaara, Jouni Mikola, Christel Palmberg. (1971). Pajujen mahdollisuudet metsäpuiden jalostuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4833. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14622
English title: Potential of willows in forest tree breeding.
Original keywords: metsänjalostus; pajut; Suomi

A review is made into the experiences and possibilities of willow breeding, with a particular consideration of their application under Finnish conditions.

In comparison with other tree genera, Salix has many advantages in breeding. The great number of species, large genetic variation between and within species and frequent crossability offer good possibilities for improvement by hybridization. The dioecious flowering, plentiful seed production and short generation cycle are valuable properties for breeding by controlled pollination. Individuals with desirable characteristics can be easily propagated vegetatively from cuttings. The propertied stated above are also characteristic of poplars, the breeding of which has resulted in great success. Corresponding results can be therefore expected from willow breeding, which has recently been initiated in several countries.

Today willows have no practical significance for forestry in Finland. There are, however, some suitable Salix species, both indigenous and exotic, for starting material for breeding, and plenty of favourable sites for willows. Therefore, the beginning of breeding research with willows should be well justified also in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Malmivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4816, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt, Eero Malmivaara. (1970). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet I.Pluspuiden valintaero ja siemenviljelysten valintahyöty. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4816. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14605
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding. I Selection differential of plus trees and genetic gain in seed orchards in Finland.

An attempt was made to estimate critically the genetic gain in clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland. The selection differential of Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is calculated on the basis of filed information on selected plus trees which has been kept by the genetic register at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The differentials were computed as realized differences in height between plus-trees and normal stand characteristics on respectively site class and as a function of age.

The genetic gain in height growth of Pinus sylvestris was computed on the basis of information on selection differential and heritability. This genetic gain is between 2.6–4.4% provided there is no pollen contamination from unknown sources outside the seed orchard. The genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine is about 7–15%, provided there is no pollen contamination in the seed orchard. However, according to investigations, there is invariably some pollen contamination in this kind of seed orchards. The contamination decreases to about 30–50% as the orchard matures and starts to produce endemic pollen. If the pollination would be entirely due to foreign pollen sources, the mathematically calculated genetic gain would be 3.5–7.5%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Malmivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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