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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles by Jyrki Raulo

Category: Article

article id 5010, category Article
Jyrki Raulo, Reino Saarnio, Timo Ylitalo. (1978). Visakoivun karsittujen oksien kyljestyminen ja värivian leviäminen niistä runkoon. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5010. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14864
English title: Sealing-off of pruned branch stumps in curly birch and subsequent spread of discoloration into the stemwood.

The material used in this study was collected in 1975 from a 41-years old curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) stand in Southern Finland, which had been pruned 12 years earlier. While the stand was thinned, 26 felled trees were selected for further study to study occurrence of discoloration originating from of pruned branches.

The study material included 35 pruned branch stumps and 38 naturally pruned branch stumps of curly birch. The mean diameter of the former was 31 mm and of the latter, only 15 mm. Of the pruned branch stumps, 23% had become completely sealed-off within 12 years. The discoloration had spread into the stem as little from pruned branch stumps as from naturally pruned ones even though the former were greater in diameter. Advanced rot was not found in any of the samples studied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raulo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarnio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ylitalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5008, category Article
Jyrki Raulo, Gustaf Sirén. (1978). Neljän visakoivikon päätehakkuun tuotos ja tuotto. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5008. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14862
English title: Yield in volume and money of final cutting in four curly birch stands.
Original keywords: visakoivu; tuotos; laatu

Curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) is characterized by large variations in stem form and the internal structure of the wood, and is generally divided in to four types on the basis of visible external stem characteristics. First plantation experiments in Finland in the 1920’s in experimental areas of the Finnish Forest Institute, had become ripe for cutting and were felled. The study material of this study consists of one 52-year old and three 42–43 -year old stands of curly birch.

The yield suitable for plywood manufacture from the oldest stand was 34,777 kg/ha and that of curly grained branch wood 39,452 kg/ha. The corresponding figures of the other stands were, on average 24,219 and 57,271 kg/ha. The yield from the stands were sold at the present-day price. The result was economically better than from any other forest tree species grown in Finland. The younger stands were obviously cut too early. It was concluded that the genetic quality of the seedlings used in the plantations in the 1920’s and 1930’s was not very high.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raulo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4984, category Article
Jyrki Raulo. (1978). Forestation chain for birch (Betula pendula Roth) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4984. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14838

During the 1970’s an average of 4 million Betula pendula (Roth) seedlings have been planted annually in Finland. The activities connected with the planting of this tree species, the selection of forestation sites, site preparation, planting out the seedlings and follow-up work on the forestation sites are briefly reviewed in the article. The manuscript is based on the studies into the breeding, seedling production and planting techniques of B. pendula started by the Finnish Forest Research Institute already in 1960’s, as well as on practical observations made at the planting sites. A list of some of the Finnish studies concerning B. pendula which have been published in English and studies with a summary in English is included.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raulo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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