Current issue: 53(1)

Under compilation: 53(2)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by Aarne Nyyssönen

Category: Article

article id 7177, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso, Christian Keil. (1968). The use of aerial photographs in the estimation of some forest characteristics. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 4 article id 7177. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7177

The aim of this investigation is to study, for north European conditions, some overall standards of accuracy attainable in the estimation in a number of forest characteristics from aerial photographs. Field data was acquired in three areas, comprising whole stands, fixed and variable size sample plots and sections of survey strips.  

The results show that land use classes could be estimated to a rather high degree of precision from aerial photographs. The accuracy of determination of the main tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and deciduous trees) was more moderate; three quarters of all stands were interpreted correctly from the present photographs. The estimate of pure stands was noticeable better than those for mixed stands. In general, the agreement between treatment class stratification in the field and from aerial photographs was poor, as only one-third of all cases the class was same. The dominant height was estimated with relative lack of bias for small stands, but systematic underestimation of nearly 2 m existed for high stands.  

The emphasis in this investigation was laid on determination of the volume of growing stock. Stand volumes in the small and medium volume classes were overestimated, against clear under-estimate for high volume stands. The standard error of difference, including bias, was ±43 both in m3 and as a percentage. 

The variance data available provide a basis for the conclusion that under some conditions photo stratification within the forest land seems to improve the efficiency of volume estimation, whereas in some other cases the stratification is hardly an economic proposition. Alternative computations made from the data of an experimental survey indicated the likelihood that no gain was deprived from the use of aerial photographs for volume class estimation. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Poso, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keil, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7169, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Pekka Kilkki, Erkki Mikkola. (1967). Eräiden metsänarvioimismenetelmien tarkkuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 4 article id 7169. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7169
English title: On the precision of some methods of forest inventory.

This paper reports on tests made for the study of alternative methods in forest survey. Data were acquired by measurements in five areas in Finland and in Mexico, varying in size from 20 to 900 ha. The principal characteristics used in the analysis was the entire volume. By the combination of neighbouring plots, the variation could be studied for different plot sizes and survey strips. Variable (relascope) plots could be compared.

A starting point for the comparison of different sampling methods, calculations were made of the coefficients of variation for each plot type; total and within the strata. The amount of decrease of variation with an increasing plot size could be established. Comparisons have been made of the following sampling methods: simple random, stratified random, simple systematic, and stratified systematic sampling.

On comparisons of the standard error of sample mean it was found that in both stratified sampling and different types of systematic sampling there is, with increasing size and diminishing interval of sample plots, an increase in the relative improvement of the result against simple random sampling. Only in exceptional cases did systematic surveys give results which were less precise than those derived by other methods.

In discussion of some methods for determination of the precision of systematic sampling, possibilities of theoretical determination of the degree of precision was considered. An empirical study was made of the behaviour of some equations based on the sample itself. The larger the plot size and the shorter the plot interval, the more the equations overestimated in general the variance of sample mean.

As none of the equations studied gave reliable results, regression equations were calculated for the relative standard error on the basis of the data measured. The independent variables were plot size, plot or strip interval, area of survey unit and mean volume. The results arrived at are based mainly on the complete measurement of one area only. To enable extension of the scope of application, more material is needed with a complete enumeration of trees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7168, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Pekka Kilkki. (1966). Estimation of strata areas in forest survey. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 3 article id 7168. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7168

Highest degree of precision in determining the areas of different strata in forest survey is achieved when the areas are measured from a map. However, in practice the stratum-areas usually need to be determined on the basis of samples taken in the field or from aerial photographs. The goal of the present investigation was to determine the precision in stratum-area estimation on the application of different sampling methods.

Three sampling methods were used: 1. sampling with random plots, 2. uniform systematic plot sampling, and 3. sampling with equidistant lines.

The dependence of the standard error of stratum-areas in systematic line and plot sampling was examined by regression analysis. The models for regression equations were derived from random sampling formulae. It appears that the characteristics of these formulae were applicable as variables in the regression equations for systematic samples. Also, some characteristics of the distribution of the stratum was found, which seem to influence the error in sampling with equidistant lines.

The results as regards uniform systematic plot sampling indicate that the use of random sampling formulae leads to considerable over-estimation of the standard error. Nonetheless, unless relatively short intervals between sample plots are used in the forest survey made on the ground, it is of advantage to study the division of the area into strata by measuring the distribution of the survey lines in these strata.

The results can be used in two ways: for estimation of the precision in a survey already made, or to predetermine the sample size in a survey to be made. The results may be applicable to areas ranging from 100 to 1,000 ha in size, as well as to larger areas.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7162, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Pekka Kilkki. (1965). Sampling a stand in forest survey. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 79 no. 4 article id 7162. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7162

The purpose of this paper is to review tests made on the basis of Finnish material with regard to the efficiency of the 10-point cluster in sampling a stand in forest inventory. Currently, this system is applied in field work in the national forest surveys in the United States of America. The paper reports on tests, made on the basis of Finnish material, for comparison of the 10-point cluster of variable plots with 13 other designs in sampling a stand in forest survey. The research material consists of 12 stands, with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) as the main species.

The main results are concerned with the ability of different designs to provide gross volume estimates. As a measure of efficiency, three alternative series of variances were used, adjusted by three alternatives of time. The results are applicable, for instance, in double-sampling with photo and field classifications. In the comparisons, no attention was paid to the possibility of systematic errors in various designs.

For inventory volume, the 10-point cluster proved to be about 10 per cent less efficient than the best design of each alternative. The use of a single circular plot of 1,000 m2 can be recommended under the conditions of this test; furthermore, one or two 500 m2 plots were more efficient than any combination of variable plots.

The reason for the use of the 10-point cluster in forest surveying has been the ability of the design to provide simultaneous information on area condition classes. Among the designs tested, the 10-point cluster seems to be the only one capable of application in the estimation of condition classes.

Most of the information obtained by means of the 10-point cluster can be gained through ocular estimation, and from the sample trees to be measured in any design, but a cluster of several points appears to offer good means of estimation, for instance, of the presence of clumps and gasps in a stand.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7146, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1963). Analysis of two alternative methods for national forest inventories in northern Europe. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 6 article id 7146. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7146

A comparison was made between two alternative methods of continuous national forest inventory. In method 1, samples measured annually are taken throughout the country, in method 2 samples are confined to one section of the country each year. The figures are derived from national forest inventories carried out in the North-European countries Finland, Norway and Sweden. Systematic sampling on the ground has been employed without remeasured sample plots. Field work consisted of survey tracts.

For the whole country, method 1 gives results, which are continuously up-to-date, although detailed information requires observation over a period of several years. On an average, the results obtained from method 2 area at least n/2 years old (survey cycle n years). For a specific section of the country, method 1 gives preliminary results already in 1-2 years, but more accurate results are at least n/2 years old. Method 2 gives accurate results every nth year. Thus, method 2 is not always to be recommended, even if the emphasis is laid on regional information and planning.

To gain knowledge of annual timber removals, often necessary in assessing the forest resource situation, stump measurements can be used, either exclusively or by way of control. The corresponding sampling must be affected throughout the whole country, and this can be done only when method 1 is used. Other information required annually, such as estimates of seed crops, occurrence of pests or annual variation of growth due to the climate, favour method 1.

It can be concluded that method 1 has important advantages, although these must be bought at higher costs. A comparison of inventory costs shows, assuming the same degree of accuracy, that the total expenditure for method 2 is 7-8% lower than that for method 1, owing to the difference in transport requirements. Also, other aspects may affect the choice of method, for example, the use of aerial photographs may be arranged more efficiently in method 2.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7136, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Yrjö Vuokila. (1963). The effect of stratification on the number of sample plots of different sizes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 2 article id 7136. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7136

It is necessary to study the problems related to the size, number and location of sample plots as well as to the effect of stratification. This paper, mainly concerned with the volume of the growing stock based on measurements, comprises a part of the research in progress related to the issue.

The study contains a discussion of certain problems relevant to the planning of a forest inventory on the basis of variation in the volume of the growing stock. In particular, the aim has been to give data for selection of the size and number of sample plots, and to illustrate the importance of stratification, here based principally on dominant height.

The research material comprised two forest areas of 10 ha each; measurement of the growing stock was made in units of 49 m2. Based on the data was constructed a model area embracing 4 forested strata and one non-forested stratum. The mean and standard deviations of the volumes was calculated for the forest area as a whole and for the different strata. On studying stratification, two approaches were employed to distribute the sample plots among the strata: optimum allocation and proportional allocation. The latter is simple in application, and gave for forested areas number of sample plots which did not exceed by more than 10% those obtained by optimum allocation. It is obvious that the application of stratification is worthy of consideration within forest areas which comprise parts with distinct differences. The decrease in number of plots with increasing plot size is considerably more marked within a stratified area. Thus, larger sample plots should be used in the former case than in the later. The investigations give hints on how forest inventories should be carried out. However, it has some limitations, which are discussed in the paper.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vuokila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7133, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Aarne Nyyssönen. (1962). Tavoitehakkuulaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 6 article id 7133. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7133
English title: The cutting budget for a desirable growing stock.
Original keywords: hakkuulaskelma; menetelmät
English keywords: cutting budget; methods

Because the ‘rental cut method’ is rather arduous and based partly on subjective analysis, new forms for a cutting budget has been developed. One of them is a method called stock development forecast, and another method will be described in this paper. The main characteristics of the present growing stock affecting the allowable cut are the forest area, site quality, forest composition by age and development classes, volume, and increment.

In the method described in this paper an analysis of the desirable stock is necessary. The allowable cut is a function of the current and desirable stock and the increment during the budget period. The budget is based on information about the forest area, site quality, growing stock and its structure, collected from an inventory. The desirable stock is described in the same sub-groups as is the current stock. An increment forecast is prepared by compound and an interest formulae and increment percentages are presented as a function of the stock age. The allowable cut shows the average amount of the cut during the management plan period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7496, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1959). Finnish research in the fields of forest mensuration and management in 1909-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 6 article id 7496. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7496

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the fields of forest mensuration and management during the previous 50 years. Of the studies special attention deserves the development, structure and growth of growing stock and forest survey. The development during the past half century has led to the differentiation of forest mensuration into a few independent fields of knowledge. Fields closely connected with forest mensuration are photogrammetry and statistical methods.

The article is published in Finnish in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 5.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7495, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1959). Metsänarvioimistieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1909-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 5 article id 7495. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7495
English title: Finnish research in the fields of forest mensuration and management in 1909-1959.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the fields of forest mensuration and management during the previous 50 years. Of the studies special attention deserves the development, structure and growth of growing stock and forest survey. The development during the past half century has led to the differentiation of forest mensuration into a few independent fields of knowledge. Fields closely connected with forest mensuration are photogrammetry and statistical methods.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 6.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7411, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1954). Hakkauksilla käsiteltyjen männiköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 60 no. 4 article id 7411. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7411
English title: Structure and development of Scots pine stands treated with different cuttings.

Permanent sample plots are considered to be the most reliable basis for investigations into structure and development of stands. Such sample plots, established since 1924 in Finland, have been used to study thinnings of varying intensity. These studies are yet too short to give comprehensive conclusions. It is also possible to base the studies on sample plots measured in managed forests and gain in this way information suitable for practical purposes. In this investigation development of stands treated by two different methods, repeated thinnings and repeated selection cutting were studied in pure, even-aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Southern Finland, on three forest types.

The results show that volume increment level of naturally normal stands seem to have been reached easily by stands treated with repeated thinnings. With advancing age, the growing stock of thinned stands fall short from the natural stands. As thinnings have removed primarily the poorest trees, the increment is distributed over trees of a larger size more in thinned than in naturally normal stands.

When intensive cuttings have resulted in a relatively small growing stock, the decrease in volume increment leads to considerable decrease in volume. The size of the tree has no essential effect – within certain limits - on the volume increment of the stand, if the volume removed is similar. However, every intermediate thinning removing largest-sized trees may result in the prolonged rotation. Since the volume increment of an older stand is much smaller than earlier, intermediate thinnings removing largest-sized trees should be avoided if the aim is the greatest volume yield. The growing stock of middle-aged or older stands untreated or treated with slight cuttings only can as a rule be considerably reduced without volume increment declining.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5050, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen ulkomaiset yhteydet. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5050. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14907
English title: International contacts of Finnish forest research.

The article describes various forms of international contacts in the Finnish forestry research and emphasizes the importance of this cooperation. The relatively small additional resources required to maintain contacts should be safeguarded. When considering the ways in which international contacts could be strengthened, coordination with the aims of the public and private sectors is needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5045, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Assessment of forest resources for forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5045. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14902

The general requirements for forest information required in forest management include the availability of quantitative data concerning forest areas and timber volume, data describing that structure and quality of the forest by classes, data dealing with the forest dynamics such as increment and mortality, stand-wise data tied to on-the-ground locations, and the timelines of all this information.

A review of the present inventory systems reveals variations in the information used to manage forests. In many cases, there appears to be an inadequacy of information. There may be no inventory system, or sampling may concern only overall features of the forest. The general trend has been towards a more common use of delineation of stands and the estimation of stands characteristics. In European countries, survey techniques have been improved by, for instance, trying to avoid subjective features in stand-wise assessments and through the use of index sub-compartments which are remeasure. In North America, a new approach was recently introduced to generate stand tables which seems to have significant inventory capabilities. In some cases, the advanced inventory systems may simultaneously employ three kinds of inventories.

In designing an inventory and management information system experiences gained elsewhere should be utilized with studies of sampling methods, remote sensing techniques, new instrumentation and computer services. Improved decision making makes it possible to introduce cheaper methods for periodic inventories. The information system should be only as elaborate as is required to do the job. The costs of acquisition of inventory information correlates with a degree of sophistication of the system, but rarely exceeds one percent of the stumpage of the timber cut. Also, the increase in wood production more than compensates the costs of planning on the basis of inventories.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4892, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1973). Uutta kirjallisuutta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4892. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14730
English title: Book review: Forest inventory.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book Forest inventory by Loetsch–Zöhrer–Haller.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4792, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1969). Yliopiston ja metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tutkijain yhteistoiminta. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4792. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14578
English title: Co-operation between research workers at the university and Forest Research Institute.

The paper discusses the cooperation between the research workers of the Forestry Departments, University of Helsinki, and of the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Although the fusion of these institutes might even seem to be justified in order to guarantee a coordination of the research work, no drawbacks exist in the present organization which could not be removed with cooperation.

In fact, cooperation has hitherto taken place in many forms both in teaching and research: working groups in the various branches of research have recently prepared a program for the development of research (Silva Fennica 1:4; 1967), leading scientists of the Institute act as lecturers at the University and some university teachers as associate researchers at the Institute.

On the other hand, in some cases lack of cooperation may have led to uncertainty and inconvenience of practical forestry. Therefore, a better system of information between scientists should be created and the continuity of cooperation strengthened. In conferences between the university and institute people, development work within the various fields of research should be cleared up with a long-range aim. The conference day of the scientists in the beginning of each year is mentioned as one possibility to start the cooperation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7645, category Article
Viljo Holopainen, Aarne Nyyssönen, N. A. Osara, Jouko Hämäläinen, K. O. Donner. (1984). Suomen Metsätieteellinen seura 75 vuotta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 190 article id 7645. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7645
English title: The 75th Anniversary volume of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The 75th Anniversary volume of the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) consists of three invited papers.

Professor Viljo Holopainen contributed the article ”The Society of Forestry in Finland during the period of active science and forest policy”. The article gives an account of the founding of the Society and its early activities, and views the main trends in the development of forest science in Finland. The emphasis is on a review of the science policy practiced in Finland during the past few decades, the changes that have taken place in forestry and forest policy and the challenges facing forest research in the changed circumstances. The development in the organization and material resources of forest research is examined in relation to the general trends in science policy. The author also gives an extensive account of the Society’s activities.

Professor Aarne Nyyssönen’s article ”International connections of Finnish forestry research” is an account of the international connections that forestry research in Finland has had in recent years. The author begins with international cooperation in university level education, especially in research training. He then proceeds to examine the international organizations in the field of forestry research, their tasks, activities and the role of Finnish researchers in them. A special form of cooperation, based on bilateral agreements between Finland and other countries is brought up. The greatest importance is attached to Nordic cooperation.

Professor N.A. Osara studies the comprehensive question ”World forestry: some trends and prospects”. The article begins with a review of forest resources, which points out several alarming problems in the tropical and subtropical zones as well as in industrialized countries. Prospects for expansion in the consumption of wood and wood-based products, industry and trade are studied in relation to wood availability and renewable forest resources. The author concludes that forestry can contribute to the improvement of rural conditions all over the world. He also stresses the importance of forest management not only for wood production but also for soil and water management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Donner, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7626, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Risto Ojansuu. (1982). Metsikön puutavaralajirakenteen, arvon ja arvokasvun arviointi. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 179 article id 7626. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7626
English title: Assessment of timber assortments, value and value increment of stands in Finland.

The paper is the final report of a study on the estimation of value increment and inherent variables of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands. The main aim was to obtain improved criteria for decision-making concerning the priority of stands for regeneration.

The construction of various estimation models and their reliability are discussed in detail. The study, together with some previous papers, has resulted in a system which on the basis of a number of easily assessed stand variables gives for the stands concerned the volume of stems, percentages of timber assortments, stumpage value, volume increment and value increment.

The following examples are given with regard to the practical application of the results, in addition to the determination of the relative maturity of stands: 1) The study of various trends in stand development; the comparison between the volume and value variables. 2) The estimation of timber assortments needed for a cutting budget, trees marked for felling etc. 3) The calculation of the value of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ojansuu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7597, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Kari Mielikäinen. (1978). Metsikön kasvun arviointi. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 163 article id 7597. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7597
English title: Estimation of stand increment.

The paper concerns the estimation of the increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands in the southern half of Finland. For the methods based on stand tables, tree functions forecasting the annual increment of diameter and height during the next 5-year period are presented. The main results of the study, however, are the functions for the volume increment percentage of pine and spruce stands. The independent variables are: forest site type, tree species, stand age and volume, and mean diameter. The standard error of estimate is about 17% in the best functions. Calculations were made also with regard to the application of the results in growth estimation of large forest areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mielikäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7550, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Pentti Roiko-Jokela, Pekka Kilkki. (1971). Studies on improvement of the efficiency of systematic sampling in forest inventory. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 116 article id 7550. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7550

Emphasis was laid on the finding of regression equations to indicate the dependence of standard error upon various variables in systematic sampling. As a result, the size of sample for a given precision could be computed, under varying alternatives of sample plot size and type. Another task was that of examining inventory costs by means of time studies. On combination of the results in regard to the sample size and survey time, the relative efficiency of different alternatives could be discussed, with a view to the precision of the total volume of growing stock.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Roiko-Jokela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4705, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso. (1961). Koe metsikköluokitusten suorittamiseksi ilmakuvien avulla. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4705. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14232
English title: Tree stand classifications from aerial photographs: an experiment.

In connection to the Third National Forest Inventory of Finland, two survey strips in the northernmost Finland were photographed on scale 1:15,000. Infrared films and a yellow filter were used. For the present experiment a total length of 66 km of the strips was photographed. The strips were surveyed visually from the ground by stands. Sample plots were measured at kilometre intervals. The aerial photographs were surveyed the distances covered in the ground. The work was aided by stereograms which showed 16 large-size sample plots localised on aerial photographs.

The main groups of land identified along the survey line were productive and poorly productive forest land, wasteland and another land, in addition, peatland and firm land were distinguished. Although some differences were noted, the two survey methods provided fairly similar results. For an estimation of the tree species composition the material is one-sided since the district is mainly Scots pine. The principal tree species was successfully distinguished on aerial photographs in 78 out of 82 comparable pairs.

The mean of ground observations of dominant height of the stands was 10.9 m, that of observations on aerial photographs 11.2 m. The result of stand volume estimates reveals a distinct correlation between the various methods of estimation.

In an earlier study it was shown that it is possible, using a stand volume table based on characteristics revealed in aerial photography, to create a general idea of stand volume on the southern half of the country. A few additional factors, of interest for the stratification necessary in forest inventories, were also studied. A distinct correlation was observed between the results of aerial and ground survey for all the characteristics discussed. The present experiment showed that the prerequisites for stratification through aerial photographs do exist. Further investigation is needed into the most appropriate methods for stratification in each situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Poso, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4600, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1950). Vertailevia havaintoja hoidettujen ja luonnontilaisten männiköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Silva Fennica no. 68 article id 4600. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9091
English title: Comparative study on structure and development of managed and natural Scots pine stands.

The Forest Research Institute of Finland has established permanent sample plots to survey the effect of thinnings on the stands. This study compares the development of tended and natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on three different forest types: Oxalis-Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna site type. The effect of heavy thinning from below (Oxalis-Myrtillus and Vaccinium site types) and increment felling (Calluna site type) was assessed by dividing the trees of the stands in tree classification classes according to their crown storey and defects.

The results show that thinning from below and increment thinning increase the proportion of trees in the 1st crown storey, which is already large in the natural stands. Also the diameter distribution is more even and the mean diameter higher after the thinnings.

In Scots pine stands in natural state, volume increment per stem is highest in the 1st crown storey and diminishes strongly towards the lower crown storeys. Thinnings increased the increment. The study indicates that many of the objectives of the intermediate cuttings, including promoting the growth of the best trees and improving the quality of the stand, have in general been achieved. Consequently, the thinnings give means to achieve the most valuable yield in the stand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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