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Articles by Tapio Lindholm

Category: Research article

article id 557, category Research article
Tuomo Wallenius, Timo Kuuluvainen, Raimo Heikkilä, Tapio Lindholm. (2002). Spatial tree age structure and fire history in two old-growth forests in eastern Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 557. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.557
Two near natural old-growth forests, one dominated by Picea abies and the other by Pinus sylvestris, were studied for their fire history, and spatial patterns of trees and tree ages. The spatial tree age structure and the disturbance history of the forests were examined by drawing age class maps based on mapped and aged trees and by dating fires based on fire scars, and by using spatial analyses at tree scale. The tree age structures of the Picea and Pinus dominated forests were different, mainly due to differences in fire history and sensitivity of the dominant tree species to fire. Fire histories and tree age structures of both sites have probably been affected by human in the ancient past. However, in the Picea dominated site, the fires had been severe, killing most of the trees, whereas in the Pinus dominated site the severity of fires had been more variable, leaving some Pinus and even Picea trees alive. In the Pinus dominated site, the tree age distribution was multimodal, consisting of two Pinus cohorts, which were established after fires and a later Picea regeneration. The Picea dominated site was composed of four patches of different disturbance history. In the oldest patch, the tree age distribution was unimodal, with no distinct cohorts, while a single cohort that regenerated after severe fire disturbances dominated the three other patches. In both sites the overall spatial patterns of living and dead trees were random and the proportion of spatially autocorrelated variance of tree age was low. This means that trees of different age grew more or less mixed in the forest without forming spatially distinct regeneration patches, even in the oldest patch of Picea dominated Liimatanvaara, well over 200 years after a fire. The results show that detail knowledge of disturbance history is essential for understanding the development of tree age structures and their spatial patterns.
  • Wallenius, Department of Ecology and Systematics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuomo.wallenius@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Kuuluvainen, Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikkilä, Research Centre of Friendship Park, Tönölä, FIN-88900 Kuhmo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindholm, Finnish Environment Institute, Nature and Land Use Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Discussion article

article id 572, category Discussion article
Timo Kuuluvainen, Kaisu Aapala, Petri Ahlroth, Mikko Kuusinen, Tapio Lindholm, Tapani Sallantaus, Juha Siitonen, Harri Tukia. (2002). Principles of ecological restoration of boreal forested ecosystems: Finland as an example. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 572. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.572
  • Kuuluvainen, Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 27 FIN-00014, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.kuuluvainen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Aapala, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahlroth, University Museum, Section of Natural History, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusinen, Ministry of the Environment, Land Use Department, P.O.Box 380, FIN-00131 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindholm, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sallantaus, Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, P.O. Box 297, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.siitonen@metla.fi
  • Tukia, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5318, category Article
Tapio Lindholm, Harri Vasander. (1987). Vegetation and stand development of mesic forest after prescribed burning. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5318. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15475

This study deals with the succession of vegetation and tree stand in 16 mesic Myrtillus site type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations after prescribed burning in Evo, Southern Finland. The oldest tree stands studied were about 30-year-old. The growth of trees followed the height index of Myrtillus type. The vegetation was first mesic, dominated by grasses and herbs, turning more xeric after four years. This change was accelerated by treatment with herbicides. After the closure of tree stand, vegetation became more characteristic of forest vegetation, but pioneer species and composition disappeared slowly. The basic characters of vegetation succession could be clearly described by DCA ordination and TWINSPAN classification. The study confirmed that Myrtillus type has succession phases which are typical for each age phases as Cajander’s forest site type theory has proposed. However, differences in primary and secondary site factors have their own effects on the vegetation of the succession phases.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5227, category Article
Harri Vasander, Tapio Lindholm. (1985). Tulen voimakkuus ja maanpinnan lämpötila kulotuksen aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5227. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15406
English title: Fire intensities and surface temperatures during prescribed burning.

Surface temperature during two prescribed burnings were measured in 1983 in Evo, Southern Finland. Surface temperatures in relation to the amount of slash burned, energy released during the fires, and the fire intensities were studied. The fire intensity was also measured during a third burn. The Lake Nimetön site was burned int the end of May. Due to the uneven distribution of slash, colonization by Calamagrostis arundinacea and the spring moisture, the burning was very uneven. Surface temperatures varied between 410–809°C and the intensity of fire was low (range 0–900 kW/m).

The fire intensity on the other sites burned in May was also low (880 kW/m). During the burn in August the surface temperatures varied between 701–869°C and the intensity of fire was moderate (1,170 kW/m). Slash was burned more evenly and more thoroughly due to the dryness of the site and slash and the fact that grasses and other herbs were not abundant.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5194, category Article
Tapio Lindholm, Matti Nummelin. (1983). Changes in the community structure of forest floor vegetation after repeated litter disturbance by raking. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5194. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15177

The tolerance of disturbance of the ground and field layer vegetation in a moderately fertile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) on Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest in Southern Finland was studied. One of the sites, a summer cottage yard had been raked regularly during the last 25 years. The structure of the vegetation was quite different compared to the other sample site situated in a virgin forest. The phytomass and percentual coverage of the vegetation was remarkable lower in the raked habitat. Tall mosses, Pleuroxium schreberi and Hylocomnium splendens had especially disappeared. Most grass shrubs had also deteriorated. Only Deschampsia flexuosa was quite tolerant to raking. The phytomass of the dwarf shrubs was lower in the raked area but their relative production was higher. Three different kinds strategies of species were described: species of virgin shaded forest, species of meadow-like forest floor and species which tolerate or benefit from disturbance. The raked habitat had a higher species diversity than the virgin area. Nitrogen and carbon contents were lower in the soil of the raked area.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummelin, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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