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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 13 no. 3 | 1979

Category: Article

article id 5046, category Article
Fernando Saravia. (1979). Piensahojen merkitys jälkeenjääneen metsäalueen teollisessa ja sosiaalisessa kehittämisessä Chilessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5046. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14903
English title: Small-scale sawmills in industrial and social development of backward forestry areas.

This paper analyses the potential of utilizing a previously existing infrastructure of small sawmills in a backward area to enhance planned social development, considering at the same time both social and economic objectives. The paper presents the case of a rural forest region of 352,000 ha in Southern Chile in the period 1970–73. It is concluded that meaningful contributions can be made by this traditional industry to such development.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saravia, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5045, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Metsävarojen arviointi metsätalouden suunnittelua varten. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5045. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14902
English title: Assessment of forest resources for forest management.

The general requirements for forest information required in forest management include the availability of quantitative data concerning forest areas and timber volume, data describing that structure and quality of the forest by classes, data dealing with the forest dynamics such as increment and mortality, stand-wise data tied to on-the-ground locations, and the timelines of all this information.

A review of the present inventory systems reveals variations in the information used to manage forests. In many cases, there appears to be an inadequacy of information. There may be no inventory system, or sampling may concern only overall features of the forest. The general trend has been towards a more common use of delineation of stands and the estimation of stands characteristics. In European countries, survey techniques have been improved by, for instance, trying to avoid subjective features in stand-wise assessments and through the use of index sub-compartments which are remeasure. In North America, a new approach was recently introduced to generate stand tables which seems to have significant inventory capabilities. In some cases, the advanced inventory systems may simultaneously employ three kinds of inventories.

In designing an inventory and management information system experiences gained elsewhere should be utilized with studies of sampling methods, remote sensing techniques, new instrumentation and computer services. Improved decision making makes it possible to introduce cheaper methods for periodic inventories. The information system should be only as elaborate as is required to do the job. The costs of acquisition of inventory information correlates with a degree of sophistication of the system, but rarely exceeds one percent of the stumpage of the timber cut. Also, the increase in wood production more than compensates the costs of planning on the basis of inventories.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5044, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1979). Kansallinen metsätase. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5044. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14901
English title: Forest balance on the national level.

Forest balance is a comparison between the growing stock volume at the beginning and end of a balance period and the gross increment and drain during that period. The forest balance of Finland during that period 1967-1973 and the increment and drain balance during the period 1953-1977 are used as examples in the paper. Forest balance is a check of the accuracy of basic estimates. If the discrepancy between the calculated growing stock at the end of the balance period and the growing stock estimated by an inventory is great, it calls for improvements in forest inventory methods and timber utilization statistics.

Balance may reveal possibilities for improving the utilization of forest resources. If natural losses are great, increased thinnings and regeneration cuttings of mature and over-mature tree stands increase the supply of timber. If logging losses are great, the efficiency of harvesting should be improved. An overcutting situation calls forth efforts to increase timber production or to decrease the uses of timber in order to avoid overexploitation. If gross increment is greater than the drain there are possibilities to increase harvesting, forest industrial expansion etc.

Forest balance is a way to check and improve the basic estimates of forestry production, to increase the effective use of timber grown in the forest, to commerce policies and measures concerning increment and to control timber utilization on the basis of sustained yield.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5043, category Article
V. J. Palosuo, M. Heikinheimo, S. Kaurinkoski. (1979). Metsäopetus ja ammattipätevyys metsäpolitiikkaa kehitettäessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5043. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14900
English title: Role of education and professionalism in the developing of forest policies.

To what extend can the services of forestry fulfil the needs of a nation? The answer depends not only on the natural resources or the stage of development of a country and its forestry, but also on its base of knowledge and know-how. The question is how to maximize the knowledge of forests and its role in human life, how to analyse this knowledge and in due course forward the result to the decision makers.

As an organic part of economy and culture, forest policy must incorporate a balanced and up-to-date program of education which will cover the needs of all forest-based services to the public. This program ought to guarantee a sufficient number of qualified professionals, technicians and workers who for their part should share their knowledge and especially field experiences for the development of the nation’s forest policy.

The forest management must be turned into a profession that will have its permanent role in the general planning of the nation’s economy and welfare. Depending on the structure of the country’s administration, there are different ways to make the professional voice heard by the responsible politicians. In any case a close and continual discussion and cooperation between politicians and professionals will be essential. Discussions must take place in the early phases of the planning in order to minimize erroneous planning caused by eventual lack of factual knowledge among the politicians. Information must be given in clear and uncomplicated terms, understood also by the public which must be well informed about the aims and duties of the professionals as well.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaurinkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5042, category Article
Lasse Hellman. (1979). Metsätyöntekijäin sosiaalisen aseman kehittäminen – Valtiovallan osuus. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5042. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14899
English title: Social promotion of forest workers.

The social circumstances of forest workers may be considered from the viewpoint of incomes and standard of living. The committee appointed by the U.N. did, however, define in 1961 the standard of living using the following partial factors: health, housing, working conditions, security, human rights, education, recreation, clothing and nutrition.

Research has given a rather gloomy picture of forest workers’ health conditions. The living of a forest worker is cramped and long distances to the work sites often compel him to live in working site accommodations, separated from the family. Transport to the working site and building of family quarters for forest workers in densely populated rural areas and villages can improve the worker’s living. The fall of worker’s income in contract work due to deterioration of his physical capacity of performance starts already at the age of 35. In forest work a man’s energy consumption may be higher than 20,000 kJ (4,800 kcal) per day; it is one of the most strenuous occupations. In addition, there is a high accident risk in the work. The heavy work and the working conditions should be taken into account in determining the correct nutrition. Being those who make objections and are primarily responsible for the forest workers’ conditions, forest technicians and forestry officers should – both in their capacity as forest authorities and as the employer’s representatives – see to the improvement of forest workers’ working conditions and social position.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hellman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5041, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1979). Yksinkertaisten työvälineiden kehittäminen metsätyöhön. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5041. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14898
English title: The development of simple tools for forestry work in Finland.

The paper deals with the development of hand tools and their maintenance methods, and the improvement of working techniques in Finland in the era when forest work was mostly done by muscular power. The development was carried out in a close connection with professional training, permitting the results to be distributed widely throughout the country at short duration courses, and simultaneously collecting new information.

The phases of the entire development cycle is described from founding of the development and training organization to standardization of the tools and comparisons to similar foreign and Finnish tools. On the basis of this, along with analyses and synthesis performed, new hand-made prototypes were created and then tested on forest work sites. The knowledge was used to produce test series in a tool factory, and feedback was gathered from skilled workers. On experience gained, best tools selected could be put into manufacturing. This work gave a natural basis to investigate even working techniques. Good results were achieved through cooperation between researchers, users, manufacturing industry and trade, as well as vocational training.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5040, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1979). Metsätyöntekijäin sosiaalinen kehittäminen – työntekijäjärjestöjen osuus. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5040. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14897
English title: Social promotion of forest workers.

Alongside the extent of forest production, the demand for labour input in forestry depends on the development of the structure of production and of the productivity of the work. In this, mechanization of harvesting will have long-lasting influence. Despite the growth in forestry production, the number of forestry workers has decreased considerably in many countries, but at the same time the share of professional forest workers has increased. The permanence of work fundamentally affects the life of a forest worker. It has influence on the income level, on the social position of the worker and on the standard of living.

The appreciation of the occupation of a forest worker will be increased mainly within the increasing mechanization of the work. It requires vocational training, and it will improve wages, competition of skilled workers and social appreciation of the vocation. In order to influence their benefits forest workers have organized themselves into trade unions. They activate their members in to helping the unions to attain their aims. Trade unions try to influence the policies of forestry and forest labour. In this respect they are in contact with political parties. The questions of labour policy occupy a central position in the mutual relations of the labour market organizations. Within mutual cooperation much promotion has been achieved concerning wages, working conditions, rationalization, improvement of housing facilities and other living conditions. Especially in some East-European countries attention is being paid to the motivation of forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5039, category Article
Pertti Elovirta. (1979). Metsätalouden työllistävä vaikutus Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5039. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14896
English title: Forestry as an employer in Finland.

The article describes the significance of forestry as a source of employment in the rural areas of Finland. The historical perspective of the presentation dates from the 1860’s. This period includes all the relevant stages in the development of the theme in question, the preindustrial age up to the 1890’s, the period of the creation of the forest industries to the end of 1920’s, the period of the forest industries’ expansion to the end of 1950’s and the period of mechanization from the beginning of 1960’s. The long perspective is possible because of the existence of time series data.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Elovirta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5038, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). Metsänhoidon merkitys aavikoitumisen torjunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5038. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14895
English title: The role of forestry in the fight against desertification.
Original keywords: aavikoituminen; metsitys; metsätalous

This paper reviews the background documents and the final report of the United Nations Conference on Desertification, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in August/September of 1977. Deforestation for grazing or agriculture has often been the initial step towards desertification. Consequently, tree planting plays a central role in the reclamation of desertified areas. Shelterbelts and other tree plantations protect agricultural land, settlements and communications.

Tree plantations in arid zones need effective protection against grazing and other improper land use. This must be explained to political leaders and local people. As a long-term investment, it requires a high level of education to understand its ultimate usefulness, and also research to choose the best species and techniques for different climatic and soil conditions is needed. In addition, afforestation will contribute to the solution of energy problems. Fast growing trees, even with artificial irrigation, can be the most efficient and economical way to cover energy needs of rural people. To accomplish the task of reclamation of decertified areas, international cooperation and technical and economic support from industrial countries to developing countries is needed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5037, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). Ympäristönsuojelu Euroopan metsäopetuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5037. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14894
English title: Environmental content of forestry education in Europe.

Traditionally, European forest education has emphasized environmental conservation. Forest education reflects the needs of society. After the industrial revolution, rapidly growing forest industries needed an increasing amount of wood, and the emphasis of forestry education was on timber production on the basis of sustained yield, and on efforts for progressively raising yields.

The technical and economic development of the recent decades introduced two themes in the environmental content of forest education: 1) The changing role of forests in society increase importance of protection and recreational functions of forests, and 2) modern technology has caused great changes in the forestry itself. These changes have to be taken into account also in the forest education. The environmental content of forest education can be divided into two broad fields, the ecological basis and environmental influences of various forest operations, and forest management for non-production uses. In both fields university curricula include a) basic courses, obligatory for all forestry students, b) optional courses, and c) advanced courses for higher degrees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5036, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Päiviö Riihinen. (1979). Metsätalous ja maatalouden kehittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5036. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14893
English title: Forestry and rural development.

The development of a society often involves deep-going changes in its economic and social structure. According to the theory of cumulative growth, the economic changes attached to industrialization and modernisation of a society are characterized by the regional differentiation of economic activities. Expansive growth centres, areas with spreading effects, and back-wash areas will develop due to the dynamic forces of cumulative development.

The impact of industrialization and modernization on society as a whole usually manifests itself in an achievement of many of the welfare objectives considered desirable. There are, however, differences between the industries or other economic activities in respect to their effect on the economic or social life of a society or a region. The special feature of forestry and forest industry is that they are more concerned with rural districts than most other economic pursuits. The differentiation effect of forestry and forest industries is not as pronounced as that of certain other industries. Especially the back-wash effects remain rather weak.

In traditional, non-industrialized society the establishment of forestry activities may have an important role in the beginning of economic and social development which is rational from the point of view of the local communities as well as of the society as a whole. However, forestry may also have influences which one can see as socially undesirable. As far as traditional rural societies are concerned, one basic problem is that the establishment of forestry activities may advance the disintegration of ancient social institutions and structures. On the other hand, in a modern, industrialized society one primary function of forestry seems to be to maintain and strengthen the rural social structures and to equalize the regional differences caused by cumulative development. However, the role of forestry in rural development is likely to decrease when the industrialization and modernization progresses, for instance, because the increasing urban population will use forests for purposes other than forestry, such as recreation and nature conservation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5035, category Article
V. J. Palosuo. (1979). Kehitysmaiden ongelmat metsäkongressin polttopisteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5035. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14892
English title: Forests for people - World Forestry Congress.

The article is a description of the 8th World Forestry Congress held in October 1978. It gives background information for the papers published in the Silva Fennica issue 13, which includes the Finnish papers sent in the congress from Finland. The paper underlines forest and socio-economic problems of the developing countries, especially in the tropics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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