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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 15 no. 2 | 1981

Category: Article

article id 5120, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1981). Kivennäismaan raekoon tunnuksista ja niiden käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden maan ominaisuuksien kuvaamiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15061
English title: Particle size distribution characteristics of mineral soil and their applicability for describing some soil properties.

The particle size distribution affects several properties of the soil, thus, the ability to define the texture type of the soil as accurately as possible in field conditions is essential. The soil particle size classification devised by Atterberg (1912) is used in Finnish forestry. The study is based on a small laboratory material. The correlation between some characteristics of the soil particle size distribution, field capacity and cation exchange capacity were determined.

The particle size characteristics such as the relative proportion of different particle sizes, average particle size (Md) and parameters depicting the degree of sorting were determined. The relative proportion of soil particles below 0.06 mm correlated best with both field capacity and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, the average particle size and the degree of sorting correlated well with the field capacity and the cation exchange capacity.

The use of sorting characteristics is not well-suited to the type of soil sample material containing a high proportion of particles of varying size as was used in this material. Such characteristics are probably more easily applicable to the fine sand and sand sediments which are predominant in Finnish forest soils. The most useful particle size distribution characteristics in soils having a great variation in particle sizes were the average particle size and the relative proportion of silt and clay. Thus, the nutrient and water status of the soil can be predicted to some extent by examining the percentage of silt and clay, average particle size and the degree of sorting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5119, category Article
Kari Puukko. (1981). Okakaarnakuoriaisen, Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) levinneisyyden nykyinen eteläraja Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5119. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15060
English title: The southern border of the present distribution of Ips acuminatus Gyll. In Finland.

Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) is a bark beetle that causes deep bluing in thin-barked Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood. It has been shown that this decreases pulp yield. The purpose of this study was to map the southern border of the distribution of Ips acuminatus in Finland. It was found that there have been changes in the distribution of this species during the last three decades. Ips acuminatus has now disappeared from southern Finland. On the basis of the sample plots (134 cutting areas) the southern border of this pest lies on the line running through the towns Vaasa–Seinäjoki–Äänekoski–Jyväskylä–Pieksämäki–Savonlinna–Punkaharju. A certain degree of localisation was observed in the occurrence of I. acuminatus in its distribution area, for instance, differences in its occurrence frequency in cutting areas and even in log and cutting residue piles in the sample cutting area.

It is considered that the most important reasons for these changes in distribution are the increase in logging and changes in the location of cutting sites, and resulting competition for breeding material for the increased population of bark beetles. Furthermore, the long-distance transport of unpeeled logs from the north across the present southern borders may, in the future, contribute to local changes in the southern distribution of Ips acuminatus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puukko, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5118, category Article
Matti Nuorteva, Jyrki Patomäki, Lennart Saari. (1981). Large poplar longhorn, Saperda carcharias (L.), as food for white-backed woodpecker, Dendrocopos leucotos (Bechst.). Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5118. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15059

In a locality in Southern Finland where the white-backed woodpecker, Dendrocopos leucotos (Bechst.), was previously breeding was found many conical borings excavated during the winter in young aspens (Populus tremula L.) on average 8.1 cm in diameter. Full-grown larvae of Saperda carcharias (L.) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) hibernated in pupal chambers constructed about 0.5 m above ground level. Below this chamber the larva has usually prepared an exit hole. After the larva has blocked itself in the pupating chamber it is easy to prey for the woodpecker during the whole winter.

There were usually 1–5 conical borings in the same trunk. The number of these borings did not correspond with the amounts of larvae eaten, since the woodpecker often made these borings in places from which it could not obtain a prey. The woodpeckers stopped excavating in those cases when the larvae in the galleries were dead. The exit holes and the conical borings occluded within a few years. The galleries within the tree will not heal and several years later a new larva may utilize them. In the wintering habitats of the white-backed woodpecker the availability of food could be improved by increasing the amount of S. sarcharias larvae. This is easily done by encouraging young aspens.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Patomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5117, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1981). Forestry and the timber economy in economic development. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5117. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15058

The article deals with differences in economic growth in different countries and regions and with reasons for these differences. The central role in investments in economic growth and the mechanism of its differentiation are elucidated. The properties of forestry and the forest industries in equation or differentiating economic growth are considered. In the light of the theories of regional differentiation, the mere production of raw material in some region tends to increase differences in economic development if that raw material is processed in some other region – despite the fact that the level of income rises in both regions. It is therefore desirable that afforestation projects in the development countries are accompanied by the development of the forest industries.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5116, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pauline Oker-Blom. (1981). Specific needle area of Scots pine and its dependence on light conditions inside the canopy. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5116. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15057

The specific needle area of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed a substantial within-tree and between-tree variation which was associated with the position of the tree and the position of the whorl as indicated by the prevailing crown and branch illumination. In suppressed trees the values of the specific needle area were three to four times those in dominating trees. A similar morphogenesis was discernible in comparison of the lower and the upper part of the crown. The mean specific needle area value for the whole stand was 184 cm2/g.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oker-Blom, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5115, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. II. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5115. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15056

The anatomical variation of a lateral root was compared with that of the stem of the same tree at breast height by concentrating on the intrelationships of certain anatomical features in Betula pendula and B. pubescens. The results showed that root wood has several essential features of stem wood, such as gelatinous fibres, growth eccentricity, scalariform perforation plates in the vessels and pith flecks. However, some of the anatomical differences are significant. The differences between the species were more pronounced in the root than in the stem anatomy.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5114, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Haapa- ja poppelilajien (Populus) käyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5114. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15055
English title: Utilization of aspen and poplars (genus Populus).
Original keywords: haapa; poppelit; viljely; puulajit; käyttö

The aim of this study was to establish from the literature the purposes and for which aspen (Populus tremula L.) and related poplar species are used and can be used.  According to the literature, numerous Populus species can be utilized in the industry with success instead of light softwood species in addition to them. The main emphasis is in the growing of large-sized timber, and there is no clear trend to changing to the short-rotation forestry of poplar. However, the utilization of the good sprouting properties of Populus species will probably increase as this regeneration method is cheap.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5113, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Wood anatomy and physical properties of wood and bark in Betula tortuosa Ledeb. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5113. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15054

Ten trees of mountain birch (Betula tortuosa Ledeb, now Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii) with an average age of 39 years were sampled in northern Lapland in Finland. The average green density of wood was 589 kg/m3 and that of bark 941 kg/m3. The basic densities were 520 kg/m3 and 559 kg/m3, respectively. The basic density increased only little from the pith to the surface. In contrast, the number of bars in the perforation plates of the vessels increased considerably in the same direction. The average number of bars was 17.3.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5112, category Article
Timo Kyttälä. (1981). Yhteistoiminnan kehittäminen puunkorjuuorganisaatiossa työmaatapaamisen avulla. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5112. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15053
English title: Development of cooperation between workers and supervisors in logging through work-site meetings.

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of the working place meetings on the increased cooperation between workers and supervisors, the improved work performance, the intensified use of machines and the improved job satisfaction. In the study loggers, forest machine operators and forement were interviewed. The results showed that the working place meeting is a useful means to realise the above-mentioned aims.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kyttälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5111, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Effect of the within-stand light conditions on the share of stem, branch and needle growth in a twenty-year-old Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5111. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15052

The share of stem, branch and needle growth was dependent on the within-stand light regime in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The share of needle growth increased at the expense of stem and branch growth in poor light conditions. In good light condition the share of branch wood increased substantially. The share of stem wood growth was greatest in moderate shading, emphasizing the role of an adequate stand density for growing high-quality timber. The basic density of the stem wood was considerably greater in suppressed trees than in dominating trees. The differences were related to the illumination of the crown system.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5110, category Article
Helena Lehtiö. (1981). Effect of air pollution on the volatile oil in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5110. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15051

The amount of volatile oil and monoterpene composition in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied in trees growing near two factories and in the city of Kuopio, Central Finland. Trees in these locations are exposed principally to sulphur dioxide and fluoride emissions.

The amount of volatile oil increased with increasing injury class in the trees growing near the fertilizer factory. The amounts of volatile oil in trees near the pulp mill differed in the various injury classes. More oil was found in younger needles. The greatest differences in monoterpene composition were in the amounts of camphene, α-pinene, myrcene and tricyclene.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lehtiö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15050
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ohenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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