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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 20 no. 2 | 1986

Category: Article

article id 5270, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Risto Päivinen. (1986). Weibull function in the estimation of the basal area dbh-distribution. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5270. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15449

The paper demonstrates the possibility of using data from small relascope sample plots in the derivation of the regression models which predict the Weibull function parameters for the dbh-distribution. The Weibull parameters describing the basal area dbh-distribution were estimated for relascope sample plots from the Finnish National Forest Inventory. In the first stage of the estimation nonlinear regression analysis was employed to derive initial parameter estimates for the second stage, in which the maximum likelihood method was used. The parameter estimates were employed as dependent variables for the derivation of the regression models; the independent variables comprised of the compartment-wise stand variables generally estimated in ocular inventories.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5269, category Article
Leena Ryynänen, Martti Ryynänen. (1986). Propagation of adult curly-birch succeeds with tissue culture. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5269. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15448

The curly-grained trait of Betula pendula Roth is inheritable, but it is persumably not question of only one Mendelian gene since, for instance, there are a number of different types of curly-birch. The progeny obtained from controlled crossing between two curly-birch individuals do not all posses the curly-grained trait.

Plantlets were produced from adult curly-birch (Betula pendula var. carelica). Murashige and Skoog’s medium was used as the culture medium. Growth was initiated on a medium containing 1 mg/l BAP. Bud formation was induced using a medium containing 10 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l NAA. Development of shoots was achieved on a medium containing ½ x Murashige and Skoog’s macrominerals and sucrose, 1/1 x Murashige and Skoog’s microminerals and vitamins, and 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l IAA. The medium used for inducing root formation was the same as above, but without any growth regulators. The results indicate that adult deciduous trees can be best propagated through tissue culture when the least differentiated cells, i.e. the initial cells of the promeristem, are used as the startin material. The axillary buds provide easily available study material which can be prepared with little difficulty and are continuously renewed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ryynänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ryynänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5268, category Article
Kaarina Niska. (1986). Kivennäismaan ravinnemäärien ilmaisutapa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5268. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15447
English title: Expressing the nutrient concentrations of mineral soils.

Gravimetrically expressed nutrient concentrations of soil analysis were converted to volumetric values using dry bulk densities measured in the natural state and in the laboratory after air-drying and sieving the samples. The aim was to examine, using volumetric samples representing different soil classes, exactly how the converted nutrient values calculated by this laboratory method describe volumetric nutrient contents in undisturbed soil. In the fine soil classes undisturbed bulk density was higher than laboratory bulk density and converted nutrient concentrations were too small. In coarser soil classes the reverse was true, and the values were too high.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Niska, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15446
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5266, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Malli männyn, kuusen ja koivun puuaineen oksaisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5266. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15445
English title: Model of knottiness of wood material in pine, spruce and birch.

A computer model was developed for predicting knottiness of wood material of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp). The prediction included location of knots, their size and quality, i.e. if they are dead or living knots. The model suits best for tree species where branches are born at the base of shoots, in Finland such tree species is Scots pine.

The usefulness of the model was tested in the prediction of knots in wooden elements of joinery industry. According to the results, the shape of cross section affects the surface quality of elements. Especially useful is a quadratic cross section as it increases the probability to get a knotless surface.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5265, category Article
J. Ross, S. Kellomäki, P. Oker-Blom, V. Ross, L. Vilikainen. (1986). Architecture of Scots pine crown. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5265. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15444

Dimensions (length, width and thickness) of needles in crowns of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were found to be related linearly to each other. Similarly, the needle area was linearly correlated with the needle biomass. In the lower crown, needle length was linearly correlated with the length of the shoot, but in the upper crown needle length did not vary according to any regular pattern. Needle density was negatively correlated with shoot length. In the lower crown the needle density varied 20–40 cm-1 and in the upper crown 15– 20 cm-1. The increasing angle of aging needles seemed to be characteristic for Scots pine shoots.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Ross, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oker-Blom, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ross, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vilikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5264, category Article
Kari Heliövaara. (1986). Occurrence of Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in a gradient of industrial air pollutants. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5264. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15443

The relationship between industrial air pollutants and the occurrence of galls of Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Torticiadae) was studied around the industrialized town of Harjavalta in Western Finland. There were 44 sampling sites set out at logarithmic distances along five transects (NW, W, SW, SE) froma a distive source of emissions. Each site consisted of three circular sample plots (30 m2) in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The number of galls, including cankers from several years earlier, was highest in the vicinity of the factory complex on each transect. The highest number of two-year-old galls containing living larvae was usually recorded at the ends of the transects several kilometres from the factories. However, the significance of the differences both between zones and transects was rather low. Correlations between the deposition of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), used as an indication of the general level of air pollution, and the total number of galls, were positive and generally highly significant. It is concluded that P. resinella has benefitted from air pollution although perhaps to less extent than some sap-sucking species.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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