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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 23 no. 4 | 1989

Category: Article

article id 5396, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1989). Uuteen maatalous- ja metsäakatemiaan. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5396. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15554
English title: Towards new agriculture and forest academy .

This paper is a commentary which summarises the history of the Finnish Society of Forest Science and its connection to the corresponding society in the field of agriculture, the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland. The original idea when the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland was founded was that the society would function as a scientific society for both forest scientists and agronomists. However, A.K. Cajander founded a separate academy for forest sciences. The article discusses the implications of this decision. 

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5395, category Article
Mirja Kortesharju, Jouko Kortesharju. (1989). Studies on epiphytic lichens and pine bark in the vicinity of a cement works in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5395. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15553

The element content (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, S) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) bark and Bryoria lichens, as well as the occurrence and coverage of epiphytic lichens and the length of Bryoria species, were studied in the vicinity of Kolari cement works, NW Finland. Fruticose Bryoria species had the highest coverage on pine trunks at a distance of 2 km or more from the cement works. At a distance of 1 km the foliose – or even crustose – Parmeliopsis species were most abundant, while nearer to the works lichens were almost completely absent. The length of Bryoria was reduced at distances of less than 2 km from the cement works. The calcium content in Bryoria species increased very steeply close to the works; by a factor of 60 at a distance of 1 km compared to 16 km. No corresponding increase in other elements was observed near the cement works. All the elements studied in pine bark showed a significant negative correlation with distance, and a significant positive correlation with the calculated dust deposition levels. There were only minor differences between the north and south of the pine trunks, or the side facing or away from the works. Pine bark analysis is recommended for element accumulation studies.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kortesharju, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kortesharju, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5393, category Article
Erkki Annila. (1989). Metsien kunto ja bioottiset tuhonaiheuttajat. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5393. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15551
English title: Condition of forests and biotic damages .

This review discusses whether forests are affected by biotic damages due to present or future environmental disturbances, and do environmental threats, such as air pollution and climatic change, weaken the condition of forest in a way that makes them vulnerable to damages by fungi and insect. The defence mechanisms of trees and factors affecting the development of an outbreak are described. Finally, the ways that air pollution and climatic change may affect biotic damages are discussed. 

  • Annila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5392, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Matti Maltamo, Reijo Mykkänen, Risto Päivinen. (1989). Use of the Weibull function in estimating the basal area dbh-distribution. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5392. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15550

The paper continues an earlier study by Kilkki and Päivinen concerning the use of the Weibull function in modelling the diameter distribution. The data consists of spruces (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) measured on angle count sample points of the National Forest Inventory of Finland. First, maximum likelihood estimation method was used to derive the Weibull parameters. Then, regression models to predict the values of these parameters with stand characteristics were calculated. Several methods to describe the Weibull function by a tree sample were tested. It is more efficient to sample the trees at equal frequency intervals than at equal diameter intervals. It also pays to take separate samples for pulpwood and saw timber.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Maltamo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mykkänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5391, category Article
Jukka Pietilä. (1989). Shape of Scots pine knots close to the stem pith. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5391. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15549

The shape of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) knots close to the pith of butt logs was investigated. 1,100 knots were split in a vertical direction, and their shape was measured. Knot diameter and branch angle were calculated at a distance of 40 mm from the pith of the stem. The mean diameter of all the knots in the material was 14 mm, and the branch angle 70°. Regression analysis was used to devise a formula for predicting branch angle on the basis of knot diameter. Knot size and branch angle were negatively correlated. Especially the shape of larger knots was curved. Knots achieved their maximum diameter at distance of 4–5 cm from the stem pith. The branch wood was almost completely situated above the formation point of the branch.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pietilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5390, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Kari Löyttyniemi. (1989). Effect of forest fertilization on pine needle-feeding Coleoptera. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5390. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15548

The effects of forest fertilizers on the intensity of damage caused by two curculionid (Brachyderes incanus L., Brachonyx pineti Paykull) and two chrysomelid (Calomicrus pinicola Duft., Cryptocephalus pini L.) species feeding as adults on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were investigated in two pine stands growing on dry (Calluna type) sites in South-West Finland. There was much variation in the abundance of the insect species both between the trials and the sample plots. Nitrogen fertilization increased both the height and radial growth of the pines. The curculinids were slightly more abundant on the nitrogen-treated plots. Potassium application seemed to decrease the feeding intensity of the chrysomelids especially. The overall effects were so small that forest fertilization cannot be considered as an effective control method against needle-feeding beetles.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5389, category Article
Jyrki Tomminen, Matti Nuorteva, Markku Pulkkinen, Jouni Väkevä. (1989). Occurrence of the nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya & Enda 1979 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5389. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15547

A survey was conducted in Finland in 1988 to determine whether the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya & Enda 1979 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) or the closely related species B. mucronatus would occur in Finnish forests. Dead or dying standing trees and timber of two conicer species, Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (Norway spruce) were analysed for the presence of these nematodes. Monochamus spp. pine sawyers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) were also collected and inspected for the presence of dispersal fourth juvenile stages (dauerlarva) of the nematodes. The species B. xylophilus was not found, but B. mucronatus appeared to be widespread in the country. Individuals of this nematode were found both from Scots pine and Norway spruce. Adults of two Monochamus species were found, M. galloprovincialis and M. sutor. Only two of the examined beetles of the former species had dauerlarvae in their body.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tomminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väkevä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5388, category Article
Martti Varmola. (1989). Männyn istutustaimikoiden lustonleveysmalli. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5388. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15546
English title: A model for ring width of planted Scots pine.

Ring width at breast height is presented as a function of stem radius at breast height, the ratio between the diameter of a tree and the basal area median diameter, site index, and density of stand. By means of a conversion model ring width at stump height can be estimated as a function of ring width at breast height.

According to previous studies substantially better wood quality can be expected if mean width near the pith at stump height decreases from 3 to 2 mm. According to the present study only on the poorest sites suitable for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) planting (poor Vaccinium type) the ring width is less than 3 mm at stump height even in the thickest trees. On more fertile sites a substantial increase in the recommended planting density is required, if the mean ring width is aimed to be less than 3 mm. On the best sites it is impossible to reach mean ring width of less than 2 mm, when the density is less than 4,000 stems/ha. Only the thinnest trees on the poorest sites can have a mean ring width less than 2mm.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Varmola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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