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Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B | 2017

Special issue: Drought and Dryland Management

Category: Commentary

article id 6985, category Commentary
Eshetu Yirdaw, Markku Kanninen, Mohamed Elfadl & Daniel Tsegai. (2017). Special issue: Drought and Dryland Management – a commentary. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 6985. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.6985
  • Yirdaw, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eshetu.yirdaw@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Kanninen, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markku.kanninen@helsinki.fi
  • Elfadl, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mohamed.elfadl@helsinki.fi
  • Tsegai, UNCCD Secretariat, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: dtsegai@unccd.int

Category: Research article

article id 1618, category Research article
Miguel Genin, Mohamed Alifriqui, Abdessamad Fakhech, Mohamed Hafidi, Lahcen Ouahmane & Didier Genin. (2017). Back to forests in pre-Saharan Morocco? When prickly pear cultivation and traditional agropastoralism reduction promote argan tree regeneration. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1618. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1618
Highlights: There was a significant positive relationship between the age of implanted prickly pear orchards and natural argan tree regeneration; This relationship is mainly associated with interconnected changes in traditional land uses and the activation of facilitation factors such as an enhancement of the soil’s organic matter and nurse plant phenomena; This example constitutes a remarkable alternative model for thinking about agricultural development while combating desertification.

In the southwestern pre-Saharan arid zone of Morocco, the endemic argan forest (Argania spinosa) had been almost completely destroyed in the 1960s due to intensive coal mining and mixed cereal-livestock farming. These activities turned out to be unviable and a massive rural exodus occurred in the 1970s. Local populations started to develop maintenance-free prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivation at large scale in order to keep their land ownership rights, while reducing their traditional agropastoral activity. We conducted a survey in order to characterize the relationships between the age of prickly pear orchards and argan tree regeneration. We also explored facilitating factors, such as soil organic matter and mycorrhiza. Results showed a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001) between the age of prickly pear orchards and argan tree resprouts, but with differences depending on a continentality gradient. The soil organic matter content also showed highly significant differences (p < 0.001) depending on the age of the prickly pear plantation, while spora density did not show such differences. The recent high economic value attributed to prickly pear fruits, and to both argan and prickly pear seed oil, has given farmers the opportunity to develop a lucrative agricultural activity, while promoting the recovery of native vegetation. This situation constitutes a remarkable example of speculative agricultural development in a very harsh environment, in phase with ecological priorities for combating desertification. It could represent an alternative to the externally-generated projects sustained by high levels of public funding, with ecological, economic and social impacts which are sometimes questionable.

  • Genin, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) & Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire Population, Environnement, Développement, UMR151 AMU-IRD, Marseille, France ORCID ID:E-mail: miguel.genin@gmail.com
  • Alifriqui, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: alifriqui@gmail.com
  • Fakhech, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: abdessamad.fakhech@edu.uca.ac.ma
  • Hafidi, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: hafidi.ucam@gmail.com
  • Ouahmane, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: l.ouahmane@gmail.com
  • Genin, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) & Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire Population, Environnement, Développement, UMR151 AMU-IRD, Marseille, France ORCID ID:E-mail: didier.genin@univ-amu.fr (email)
article id 1579, category Research article
Oktay Yildiz, Ernaz Altundağ, Bilal Çeti̇n, Ş Teoman Guner, Murat Sarginci & Bulent Toprak. (2017). Afforestation restoration of saline-sodic soil in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey using gypsum and sulfur. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1579
Highlights: Significantly enhanced height and diameter growth of Elaeagnus angustifolia and height growth of Populus alba improved with soil chemical amendments in comparison to control; Infiltration rate on gypsum application sites was 55% higher than on sulfur application sites; Elaeagnus angustifolia survival rates with chemical treatments were 43% greater than controls; Tamarix smyrnensis had the highest mean survival rate of 80%, while Populus alba averaged 36%.

A significant amount of land area in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey has saline-sodic soil properties. The aim of the current study was to use both soil amendment and tree to restore these degraded lands. The primary objective was to ameliorate soils by leaching excess sodium with gypsum and sulfur applications. Following soil treatments, salt cedar (Tamarix smyrnensis Bunge), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) and silver poplar (Populus alba L.) seedlings were planted on experimental and control sites to evaluate the effects of the treatments on survival and growth of these species. In the fall of 2013, three-year-old seedlings were planted using 1.5 × 1.5 m spacing on each plot. Survival rates were determined and height and diameter were measured at the end of September 2015. Second year infiltration measurements indicated that both chemical treatments had significantly increased the infiltration capacity of the soil (P = 0.0003). Soil infiltration capacity on gypsum treated sites was about 55% higher than on sulfur sites. Following the second growing season, salt cedar had the highest survival rates of 80%. Silver poplar had 36% survival rates across the treatments. Russian olive had 50 cm height growth on both gypsum and sulfur application sites vs. only 25 cm on controls. Diameters of Russian olive on gypsum and sulfur sites were about 9.3 mm vs. 5 mm on the controls. Silver poplars on gypsum treated sites grew 42% taller than controls. Salt cedar had no significant growth responses among treatments. With appropriate soil amendments, especially gypsum, Russian olive gave the best overall two-year results.

  • Yildiz, Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: oktayyildiz@duzce.edu.tr (email)
  • Altundağ, Düzce University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: ernazaltundag@duzce.edu.tr
  • Çeti̇n, Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: bilalcetin@duzce.edu.tr
  • Guner, Eskişehir Soil and Ecological Research Institute, General Directorate of Forestry, 06560 Yenimahalle/Ankara, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: stguner@ogm.gov.tr
  • Sarginci, Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: muratsarginci@duzce.edu.tr
  • Toprak, Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: bulenttoprak@duzce.edu.tr
article id 1553, category Research article
Miguel Angel Salinas-Melgoza, Margaret Skutsch, Jon C Lovett & Armonia Borrego. (2017). Carbon emissions from dryland shifting cultivation: a case study of Mexican tropical dry forest. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1553. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1553
Highlights: Under REDD+, shifting cultivation should be considered degradation rather than deforestation; Carbon stocks in old fallows (>20 years) are higher than those in old growth forests which have never been used for shifting cultivation; Extending length of fallows increases rates of carbon emissions; Shortened fallow cycles result in higher carbon stocks and lower emissions at the landscape level; Cycle lengths could be optimized for carbon sequestration in a land sharing approach.

The article considers the relation of shifting cultivation to deforestation and degradation, and hence its impacts in terms of carbon emissions and sequestration potential. There is a need to understand these relationships better in the context of international policy on Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). The article reviews the way in which shifting cultivation has been incorporated in global and national estimations of carbon emissions, and assembles the available information on shifting cultivation in Tropical Dry Forests (TDF) in Mexico, where it is widely practiced. It then takes the case of two villages, Tonaya and El Temazcal, which lie within the basin of the River Ayuquila in Jalisco, Mexico. Field data for the typical carbon stocks and fluxes associated with shifting cultivation are compared with stocks and fluxes associated with more intensive agricultural production in the same dry tropical forest area to highlight the carbon sequestration dynamics associated with the shortening and potential lengthening of the fallow cycles. The biomass density in the shifting cultivation system observed can reach levels similar to that of old growth forests, with old fallows (>20 years) having higher carbon stocks than old growth forests. Per Mg of maize produced, the biomass-related emissions from shifting cultivation in the traditional 12 year cycle are about three times those from permanent cultivation. We did not, however, take into account the additional emissions from inputs that result from the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the case of permanent agriculture. Shortening of the fallow cycle, which is occurring in the study area as a result of government subsidies, results in higher remaining stocks of carbon and lower emissions at the landscape level.

  • Salinas-Melgoza, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede, the Netherlands ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3209-1659 E-mail: ma.masm@gmail.com (email)
  • Skutsch, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CIGA-UNAM), Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex-Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, Campus Morelia, C.P. 58190, Michoacán, Mexico ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6120-4945 E-mail: mskutsch@ciga.unam.mx
  • Lovett, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK ORCID ID:E-mail: j.lovett@leeds.ac.uk
  • Borrego, CONACYT-Centro de Investigaciones en Geografía Ambiental, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex-Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, Campus Morelia, C.P. 58190, Michoacán, México ORCID ID:E-mail: aborrego@ciga.unam.mx

Category: Review article

article id 1673, category Review article
Eshetu Yirdaw, Mulualem Tigabu & Adrian Monge. (2017). Rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems – review. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1673. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1673
Highlights: The prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising; The forest landscape restoration concept can be used as the overarching rehabilitation framework; Development of process-based models that forecast rehabilitation outcomes is needed; Rehabilitation methodologies developed for moist areas are not necessarily suitable for drylands; More data is needed on cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions.

Land degradation is widespread and a serious threat affecting the livelihoods of 1.5 billion people worldwide of which one sixth or 250 million people reside in drylands. Globally, it is estimated that 10–20% of drylands are already degraded and about 12 million ha are degraded each year. Driven by unsustainable land use practices, adverse climatic conditions and population increase, land degradation has led to decline in provision of ecosystem services, food insecurity, social and political instability and reduction in the ecosystem’s resilience to natural climate variability. Several global initiatives have been launched to combat land degradation, including rehabilitation of degraded drylands. This review aimed at collating the current state-of-knowledge about rehabilitation of degraded drylands. It was found that the prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising using a suite of passive (e.g. area exclosure, assisted natural regeneration, rotational grazing) and active (e.g. mixed-species planting, framework species, maximum diversity, and use of nurse tree) rehabilitation measures. Advances in soil reclamation using biological, chemical and physical measures have been made. Despite technical advances, the scale of rehabilitation intervention is small and lacks holistic approach. Development of process-based models that forecast outcomes of the various rehabilitation activities will be useful tools for researchers and practitioners. The concept of forest landscape restoration approach, which operates at landscape-level, could also be adopted as the overarching framework for rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems. The review identified a data gap in cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions. However, the cost of rehabilitation and sustainable management of drylands is opined to be lower than the losses that accrue from inaction, depending on the degree of degradation. Thus, local communities’ participation, incorporation of traditional ecological knowledge, clear division of tasks and benefits, strengthening local institutions are crucial not only for cost-sharing, but also for the long-term success of rehabilitation activities.

  • Yirdaw, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eshetu.yirdaw@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Tigabu, Sveriges Lantbruks Universitet (SLU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Mulualem.Tigabu@slu.se
  • Monge, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: adrian.mongemonge@helsinki.fi
article id 1650, category Review article
Uriel Safriel. (2017). Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) in drylands and beyond – where has it come from and where does it go. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1650. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1650
Highlights: LDN, a mechanism for offsetting new losses of land’s productivity by restoring productivity of already degraded lands, would maintain the balance of productive lands; As target of Sustainable Development Goal LDN highlights the significance of land whose biological productivity is critical to human survival; Commissioning UNCCD to oversee the implementation of LDN empowers the UNCCD and its impact on sustainability.

The paper first reviews the desertification/land degradation syndrome, the shortcomings of attempts to control it and the consequences of this failure, including to climate change and biodiversity. It then examines the experience gained by carbon and biodiversity offsets that helped adapting the offsetting principle to the context of land degradation, by emphasizing the restoration of the many already degraded lands on earth, as major component of the Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) mechanism. LDN is a new voluntary and aspirational target of a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) under the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, aimed at neutralizing the rate of lands coming under degrading use of their productivity. This by balancing the ongoing added degradation with similar rate of restoring equivalent lands whose productivity had been already degraded. If extensively implemented, LDN would stabilize the global amount of productive land by 2030. This would increase global food security and reduce poverty of land users, thus contributing to global sustainability. This review maintains that the failure of United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) to reduce desertification triggered the emergence of LDN as a mechanism for addressing land degradation globally, rather than just desertification in the drylands. LDN accepted as target of a Sustainable Development Goal also legitimized UNCCD to lead and oversee the aspired process of achieving land degradation neutral world. This paper reviews the development of the LDN concept expressed in scientific deliberations and political advocacy, throughout the five years from inception in 2011 at the UNCCD Secretariat, to early 2016. It notes the fast and increasing acceptance of LDN, expressed in the initiation of implementation already in April 2015 by an increasing number of countries, and in the growing interest and engagement of scientists and policy-makers. But the paper also express concern regarding potential misuse of the concept.

  • Safriel, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram, Jerusalem 9190401, Israel ORCID ID:E-mail: uriel36@gmail.com (email)

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