Current issue: 53(3)
Under compilation: 53(4)
The most abundant tree species occur in different variants in different geographical regions. They differ in their genetic, biological and partly also in morphological characters, however making clear difference between these subspecies is not possible. The different subspecies have developed according the respective areas' climatic and soil conditions, developing adaptive characters. These subspecies play a great role in practical forest management, since they differ in for forestry important characters, such as cold tolerance or stem form.
The subspecies hybridize with each other in areas where their distribution areas overlap. In these areas the subspecies cannot be always clearly defined.