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Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 | 2012

Category: Commentary

article id 443, category Commentary
Eeva Korpilahti. (2012). From the Editor. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 443. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.443
  • Korpilahti, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eeva.korpilahti@luke.fi (email)

Category: Research article

article id 444, category Research article
Sovu, Mulualem Tigabu, Patrice Savadogo & Per Christer Odén. (2012). Facilitation of forest landscape restoration on abandoned swidden fallows in Laos using mixed-species planting and biochar application. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 444. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.444
The cessation of swidden cultivation and the increasing trend of abandonment of swidden fallows have created an opportunity for forest landscape restoration. However, ways need to be found to improve the poor soil fertility at these sites with affordable materials and to generate short-term socio-economic benefits for small-scale swidden fallow holders. This study assessed the feasibility of using mixed-planting of eight native species and application of rice husk biochar as soil amendment measure at a site in Laos. The effect of biochar application was compared against addition of inorganic (NPK) fertilizer and the control. The establishment and growth of the planted seedlings was then monitored for four years. The addition of rice husk biochar and NPK fertilizer did not significantly (p = 0.578) improve the survival rate of planted seedlings, which ranged from 72% to 91% (depending on the species) compared to the control. No significant growth responses to the soil amendments were observed for most of the species during the first year after planting compared to the control. The biochar effect was, however, more evident at the fourth year for diameter (p < 0.01) and height (p < 0.01) of sapling for all species; particularly its effect was more vivid on the diameter of slow-growing species. The results indicate that the species tested in the mixed-planting showed marked growth variation while application of rice husk biochar boosted their growth. Thus, planting mixed-species in swidden fallows has potential to provide continuous supplies of wood from different species to diversify the livelihood of swidden field owners, while maintaining ecosystem services.
  • -, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mulualem.tigabu@slu.se (email)
  • Savadogo, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Odén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 70, category Research article
Joonas Järvinen & Jaakko Linnakangas. (2012). Firm capabilities in the Finnish forest cluster: comparisons based on self-organizing map. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 70. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.70
This paper examines the capability portfolios of Finnish forest cluster firms in 1998–2008. In particular, the focus is on what kind of capabilities the firms in the cluster have developed, whether the firms have developed such capabilities consistently, and whether they have developed similar capability portfolios. Further, a particular focus is on the links between innovativeness and other identified capabilities. We approach the topic with an exploratory quantitative analysis of the annual reports of 11 large firms in the cluster by using computerized content analysis and a self-organizing map as the main research methods. Based on the content analysis and earlier literature, we first identify fifteen capabilities, and then build capability portfolios for the firms on the basis of the results of the self-organizing map. At the firm level, the results reveal both similarities and differences in the capability portfolios of the forest cluster firms. Similarly, we identify both continuity and change in the development of the portfolios. At the cluster level, the focus is on innovativeness capability and its relationship with other capabilities. The results suggest that especially being strategic, market-oriented, and monitoring the external environment are positively related with innovativeness; in contrast, a focus on finance and change seems to suppress innovativeness.
  • Järvinen, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Aalto University, P.O.Box 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: joonas.jarvinen@aalto.fi (email)
  • Linnakangas, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Aalto University, P.O.Box 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 69, category Research article
Tarja Wallenius, Risto Laamanen, Jussi Peuhkurinen, Lauri Mehtätalo & Annika Kangas. (2012). Analysing the agreement between an Airborne Laser Scanning based forest inventory and a control inventory – a case study in the state owned forests in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 69. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.69
Airborne laser scanning based forest inventories have recently shown to produce accurate results. However, the accuracy varies according to the test area and used methodology and therefore, an unambiguous and practical quality assessment will be needed as a part of each inventory project. In this study, the accuracy of an ALS inventory was evaluated with a field sampling based control inventory. The agreement between the ALS inventory and the control inventory was analysed with four methods: 1) root mean square error (RMSE) and bias, 2) scatter plots with 95% confidence intervals, 3) Bland-Altman plots and 4) tolerance limits within Bland-Altman plots. Each method has its own special features which have to be taken into account when the agreement is analysed. The pre-defined requirements of the ALS inventory were achieved. A simplified control inventory approach with a slightly narrower focus is proposed to be used in the future. The Bland-Altman plots with the tolerance limits are proposed to be used in quality assessments of operational ALS inventories. Further studies to improve the efficiency of quality assessment are needed.
  • Wallenius, Metsähallitus, P.O. Box 94, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tarja.wallenius@metsa.fi (email)
  • Laamanen, Metsähallitus, P.O. Box 94, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peuhkurinen, Oy Arbonaut Ltd, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 68, category Research article
Maria Villikka, Petteri Packalén & Matti Maltamo. (2012). The suitability of leaf-off airborne laser scanning data in an area-based forest inventory of coniferous and deciduous trees. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 68. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.68
This study examined the suitability of airborne laser scanner (ALS) data collected under leaf-off conditions in a forest inventory, in which deciduous and coniferous trees need to be separated. All analyses were carried out with leaf-on and leaf-off ALS data collected from the same study area. Additionally, aerial photographs were utilized in the Nearest Neighbor (NN) imputations. An area-based approach was used in this study. Regression estimates of plot volume were more accurate in the case of leaf-off than leaf-on data. In addition, regression models were more accurate in coniferous plots than in deciduous plots. The results of applying leaf-on models with leaf-off data, and vice versa, indicate that leaf-on and leaf-off data should not be combined since this causes serious bias. The total volume and volume by coniferous and deciduous trees was estimated by the NN imputation. In terms of total volume, leaf-off data provided more accurate estimates than leaf-on data. In addition, leaf-off data discriminated between coniferous and deciduous trees, even without the use of aerial photographs. Accurate results were also obtained when leaf-off ALS data were used to classify sample plots into deciduous and coniferous dominated plots. The results indicate that the area-based method and ALS data collected under leaf-off conditions are suitable for forest inventory in which deciduous and coniferous trees need to be distinguished.
  • Villikka, University of Easten Finland, Department of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Packalén, University of Easten Finland, Department of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: petteri.packalen@uef.fi (email)
  • Maltamo, University of Easten Finland, Department of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 67, category Research article
Pentti Niemistö, Heikki Korpunen, Ari Laurén, Marika Salomäki & Jori Uusitalo. (2012). Impact and productivity of harvesting while retaining young understorey spruces in final cutting of downy birch (Betula pubescens). Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 67. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.67
Quite often Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) forms an understorey in birch dominated stands in Finland. Advantageous growth conditions for both storeys are present especially in downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) stands on drained fertile peatland. The most common way of regenerating mature Downy birch forest is clear cutting and replanting with Norway spruce, even if vital spruce seedlings or saplings was already growing under the birch. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of retaining young understorey spruces on the productivity of harvesting and on the quality of the remaining stands in downy birch dominated stands with modern cut-to-length (CTL) machinery. Retaining undergrowth spruces decreased productivity of cutting in managed stands (600 stems/ha) by 6–9 per cent and in unmanaged stands (1200 stems/ha) by 11–17 per cent compared with clear cutting, where the understorey is not considered. Compared with the case where no understorey was present, the decrease in productivity was 10–17 per cent and 21–30 per cent respectively. In forwarding, retaining the undergrowth decreased the productivity of loading phases by 7–14 per cent. Harvesting treatment where spruces were retained produced an adequate stand structure for the future growing stock. Using this method, 14–24 per cent of the original spruces were totally destroyed while 25–44 per cent of spruces were destroyed when they were not considered for harvesting. The spatial variation of the remaining spruces was much better in the treatment where spruces were retained. Our study results shows that in this kind of two storey birch–spruce forests, the harvesting treatment where spruces are retained while cutting is the most acceptable and profitable method. It allows for a vital spruce sapling to continue growing, and avoids regeneration and tending costs or other harmful effects of clear-cut areas such as the freezing of young spruce plants and an increase in the ground water table.
  • Niemistö, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Korpunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laurén, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salomäki, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uusitalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano & Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@metla.fi (email)
article id 66, category Research article
Monika Strömgren, Kristina Mjöfors, Björn Holmström & Achim Grelle. (2012). Soil CO2 flux during the first years after stump harvesting in two Swedish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 66. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.66
One way of increasing the supply of renewable energy, thereby decreasing the use of fossil fuels, is to extract the stumps that remain after final stem harvesting. However, little is known about the environmental consequences of stump harvesting, and how ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, are affected by the practice. In the present paper, the effects on the soil carbon pool during the first months and years after stump harvesting in former Norway spruce stands are presented. The study was performed at two sites in mid- and southern Sweden. At both sites, the soil CO2 flux was measured on several occasions with a portable respiration system, to compare plots on which stump harvesting had occurred, with reference plots. At one of the sites, CO2 exchange was also followed continuously by means of eddy-covariance measurements before and after stump harvesting. Since there was no vegetation at the beginning of the study, almost all emitted CO2 could be assumed to come from heterotrophic sources, and the soil CO2 flux was measured. This study shows that the effect of stump harvesting on CO2 flux or soil decomposition processes is small or absent compared to site preparation such as mounding in a short-term perspective of months and years. The long-term consequences of stump harvesting are, however, still uncertain.
  • Strömgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: monika.stromgren@slu.se (email)
  • Mjöfors, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holmström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Grelle, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 65, category Research article
Kristóf Kelemen, Barbara Mihók, László Gálhidy & Tibor Standovár. (2012). Dynamic response of herbaceous vegetation to gap opening in a Central European beech stand. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 65. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.65
Herbaceous ground vegetation in artificially-created gaps was studied in a managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest over a period of eight years in Northern Hungary, Central Europe. These gaps were being used as an alternative to the regular shelterwood system to create uneven-aged stands. The effects of gap size (15 and 40 m diameter) and canopy openness on herbaceous species colonization and persistence were assessed in a systematic grid of 5 5 m. Overall, herbaceous cover was low before gap creation, increased soon afterwards, and continued to rise over time. The number of herb species increased in the gaps and, to a lesser extent, in adjacent areas under the remaining tree canopy. Colonization of gaps was rapid and there was substantial turnover of species i.e. various species disappeared from the gaps over time whilst others colonized. Species with both long-term persistent seed banks and long distance dispersal abilities were the most successful types colonizing gaps. Six species occurred preferentially in large gaps, while only one species was found to prefer small gaps. Species present before gap creation survived in both gap sizes. Smaller gaps with a diameter of half the height of canopy trees also tended to remain free of common weed species, whereas large cover of Rubus fruticosus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth could hamper natural regeneration in larger gaps. For the successful regeneration of beech we recommend the use of small gaps complemented by few large gaps.
  • Kelemen, Loránd Eötvös University, Institute of Biology, Department of Plant Systematics, Ecology and Theoretical Biology, Budapest, Hungary ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mihók, Loránd Eötvös University, Institute of Biology, Department of Plant Systematics, Ecology and Theoretical Biology, Budapest, Hungary ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gálhidy, Loránd Eötvös University, Institute of Biology, Department of Plant Systematics, Ecology and Theoretical Biology, Budapest, Hungary ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Standovár, Institute of Biology, Department of Plant Systematics, Ecology and Theoretical Biology, Budapest, Hungary ORCID ID:E-mail: standy@ludens.elte.hu (email)
article id 64, category Research article
Karin Johansson, Ola Langvall & Johan Bergh. (2012). Optimization of environmental factors affecting initial growth of Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 64. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.64
The purpose of the study was to create a near optimal environment for seedling establishment and growth, without the restrain of water and nutrients but under climate conditions typical for the region. This to give us valuable knowledge about the growth potential of different seedling types in the field. The experimental site was situated in southern Sweden. Six treatment combinations were applied including two site treatments; 1) soil inversion, i.e. the control treatment, and 2) soil inversion, drip irrigation and fertilization combined with plastic cover mulch, i.e. the optimization treatment, and three seedling types of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), (a) a 2-year-old Plug+1 seedling, (b) a 1.5-year-old containerized seedling and (c) a 10-week-old mini seedling. Effects on seedling nutrient status and growth were studied during the first three years after planting. Height, diameter and biomass of the seedlings grown in the optimized environment were significantly greater than for seedlings grown in the control. The Plug+1 seedlings grown in the optimization treatment had, after three years, reached a height of 124 cm, while the containerized seedlings were 104 cm and the mini seedlings 45 cm. In practical plantations, this height is usually gained after 5–10 years depending on planting conditions. Biomass partitioning did not differ between optimization treatments, but between seedling types. The mini seedlings allocated less biomass to the roots and more biomass to needles and stem in comparison with the two other seedling types. Mini seedlings also broke bud earlier. Throughout the experimental period, seedling nutrient status for all treatment combinations was followed and a balanced nutrient supply of macro- and micronutrients was given in the optimization treatment. Nutrient concentrations were constantly higher in seedlings grown in the optimization treatment, but the difference decreased over time. Results from this study shows that, by improving site conditions associated with fast establishment, growth check can be avoided.
  • Johansson, Skogforsk, Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.johansson@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Langvall, SLU, Asa Forest Research Station, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergh, SLU, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 63, category Research article
Leena Koivuranta, Tarja Latva-Karjanmaa & Pertti Pulkkinen. (2012). The effect of temperature on seed quality and quantity in crosses between European (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspens (P. tremula x P. tremuloides). Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 63. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.63
Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. Populus tremuloides Michx.) plantations are expanding in Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries; however, the possible effects of plantations on the native European aspen (P. tremula) and the level of gene flow between European and hybrid aspen have not been investigated. We studied seed quantity and quality in intraspecific and interspecific crosses of the European and hybrid aspens over a two year period. In order to study whether elevated temperatures due to climate change would benefit the species differently, we performed the crosses in different temperatures. In both years, interspecific crosses produced more seeds with higher quality than intraspecific crosses. This result was most distinct in crosses between female hybrid aspen and male European aspen. In higher temperatures, relative germination difference between hybrid aspen seeds and seeds from P. tremula P. tremula crosses seems to increase. These results suggest that hybrid aspen may have a significant genetic impact on the European aspen, and this effect may be strengthened by climate warming.
  • Koivuranta, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Latva-Karjanmaa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@metla.fi (email)
article id 62, category Research article
Nadia Goué, Nathalie Noël-Boizot, Michel Vallance, Elisabeth Magel & Philippe Label. (2012). Microdissection to isolate vascular cambium cells in poplar. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 62. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.62
Vascular cambium is the lateral meristem producing xylem cells inwards and phloem cells outwards in plant stem. Thus, in trees, the quality and quantity of wood is a result of highly regulated developmental process depending initially on the vascular cambium cell production. The availability of accurate transcriptomics technologies based on high coverage sequencing raises the level of expectations on tissue sampling to a very high degree. What is the benefit of top-level transcriptomics in wood formation studies if we are using these technologies on raw tissues, mixing cells at the organ level or even higher scale? The presented work describes a nine-step procedure, from standing tree to isolated ray and fusiform cells from cryolyophilized tangential sections of the poplar cambial zone. The aim of this paper is to present a step by step procedure including advices on how to select the optimal tree, how to fell the tree while securing its physiological parameters, how to cryolyophilize and microdissect under binocular, presenting the time schedule of the whole process and RNA analysis.
  • Goué, UMR5546 CNRS-Université Paul Sabatier, Castanet Tolosan, France; (INRA-UAGPF, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, 45075 Orléans cedex 2, France) ORCID ID:E-mail: goue@lrsv.ups-tlse.fr (email)
  • Noël-Boizot, INRA-UAGPF, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, 45075 Orléans cedex 2, France ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vallance, INRA-UAGPF, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, 45075 Orléans cedex 2, France ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Magel, Universität Hamburg, Zentrum Holzwirtschaft, Deutschland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Label, INRA-UAGPF, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, 45075 Orléans cedex 2, France ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 71, category Research note
Jaana Luoranen & Heli Viiri. (2012). Soil preparation reduces pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) damage on both peatland and mineral soil sites one year after planting. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 71. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.71
We studied pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)) feeding damage to Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings planted in regeneration areas located on peatlands or on mineral soil sites in Southern and Central Finland. The survey included two planting years and a total of 60 regeneration areas (40 areas on peatlands and 20 on mineral soil sites). Some sites classified as peatland were as transformed or transforming drained peatlands that also contained mineral soil on a prepared surface. The soil preparation method, type of surface material around a seedling, pine weevil, vole-induced or other damage and the health of each seedling were observed in systematically selected circular sample plots. There was slightly more pine weevil damage on peatland than on mineral soil sites. More seedlings were damaged on unprepared peat and humus than on a prepared surface. Seedlings surrounded by a prepared surface had a slightly greater risk of being gnawed by pine weevil when planted on prepared peat compared to planting on prepared mineral soil. Vole damage was observed only in one region during one year. Mounded areas had slightly less vole damage than patched areas. In order to reduce damage caused by pine weevils and voles, it is important to scarify the regeneration area properly before insecticide-treated seedlings are planted. Mounding and patching are recommended so that seedlings can be planted in mineral soil whenever possible, even in the case of peatlands.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Viiri, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

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