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Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 | 2017

Category: Research article

article id 7753, category Research article
Aarne Hovi, Pekka Raitio, Miina Rautiainen. (2017). A spectral analysis of 25 boreal tree species. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7753. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7753
Highlights: An extensive spectral library containing leaf and needle reflectance and transmittance spectra was collected; The spectra openly available in SPECCHIO Spectral Information System; Effects of tree species, leaf/needle side, canopy position, and needle age on spectra were quantified; Seasonal variations were measured for four species; Spectra analysis highlights the importance of shortwave-infrared region in separating tree species.

Spectral libraries have a fundamental role in the development of interpretation methods for airborne and satellite-borne remote sensing data. This paper presents to-date the largest spectral measurement campaign of boreal tree species. Reflectance and transmittance spectra of over 600 leaf and needle samples from 25 species were measured in the Helsinki area (Finland) using integrating sphere systems attached to an ASD FieldSpec 4 spectroradiometer. Factors influencing the spectra and red edge inflection point (REIP) were quantified using one-way analysis of variance. Tree species differed most in the shortwave-infrared (1500–2500 nm) and least in the visible (400–700 nm) wavelength region. Species belonging to same genera showed similar spectral characteristics. Upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) leaf sides differed most in the visible region. Canopy position (sunlit/shaded) had a minor role in explaining spectral variation. For evergreen conifers, current and previous year needles differed in their spectra, current-year needles resembling those of broadleaved and deciduous conifers. Two broadleaved species were monitored throughout the growing season (May–October), and two conifers were measured twice during summer (June, September). Rapid changes were observed in the spectra in early spring and late autumn, whereas seasonal variations during summer months were relatively small for both broadleaved and coniferous species. Based on our results, shortwave-infrared seems promising in separating tree species, although it is to-date least studied. The spectral library reported here (Version 1.0) is publicly available through the SPECCHIO Spectral Information System.

  • Hovi, Aalto University, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi (email)
  • Raitio, Aalto University, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.raitio@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 7743, category Research article
Sakari Tuominen, Timo Pitkänen, Andras Balazs, Annika Kangas. (2017). Improving Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory by 3D aerial imaging. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7743. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7743
Highlights: 3D aerial imaging provides a feasible method for estimating forest variables in the form of thematic maps in large area inventories; Photogrammetric 3D data based on aerial imagery that was originally acquired for orthomosaic production was tested in estimating stand variables; Photogrammetric 3D data highly improved the accuracy of forest estimates compared to traditional 2D remote sensing imagery.

Optical 2D remote sensing techniques such as aerial photographing and satellite imaging have been used in forest inventory for a long time. During the last 15 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been adopted in many countries for the estimation of forest attributes at stand and sub-stand levels. Compared to optical remote sensing data sources, ALS data are particularly well-suited for the estimation of forest attributes related to the physical dimensions of trees due to its 3D information. Similar to ALS, it is possible to derive a 3D forest canopy model based on aerial imagery using digital aerial photogrammetry. In this study, we compared the accuracy and spatial characteristics of 2D satellite and aerial imagery as well as 3D ALS and photogrammetric remote sensing data in the estimation of forest inventory variables using k-NN imputation and 2469 National Forest Inventory (NFI) sample plots in a study area covering approximately 5800 km2. Both 2D data were very close to each other in terms of accuracy, as were both the 3D materials. On the other hand, the difference between the 2D and 3D materials was very clear. The 3D data produce a map where the hotspots of volume, for instance, are much clearer than with 2D remote sensing imagery. The spatial correlation in the map produced with 2D data shows a lower short-range correlation, but the correlations approach the same level after 200 meters. The difference may be of importance, for instance, when analyzing the efficiency of different sampling designs and when estimating harvesting potential.

  • Tuominen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and Society, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sakari.tuominen@luke.fi (email)
  • Pitkänen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and Society, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.p.pitkanen@luke.fi
  • Balazs, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and Society, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: andras.balazs@luke.fi
  • Kangas, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and Society, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: Annika.Kangas@luke.fi
article id 7731, category Research article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio, Pirkko Velling. (2017). Growth, wood density and bark thickness of silver birch originating from the Baltic countries and Finland in two Finnish provenance trials. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7731. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7731
Highlights: Baltic origins of silver birch had significantly thicker bark than the Finnish ones; In terms of wood density, no consistent difference was detected between the Baltic and Finnish origins; Incidence of darkened core wood increased with increasing seed origin latitude; Frost cracks were most common in south Latvian origins grown in central Finland.

Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seed origins from the Baltic countries and from Finland were compared in terms of growth, wood density, bark thickness and the incidence of darkened core wood, frost cracks and decay, and the effect of seed origin latitude was examined in two Finnish provenance trials. The material consisted of 21 stand and single tree origins ranging from latitudes 54° to 63°N from the Baltic countries and Finland. The trials, measured at the age of 22 years, were located at Tuusula (60°21´N), southern Finland and at Viitasaari (63°11´N), central Finland. The Baltic origins were superior to the Finnish ones in the southern trial regarding height, whereas in central Finland the Finnish origins grew better. There was no consistent difference between the Baltic and the Finnish group of origins in wood density. Bark thickness decreased with increasing seed origin latitude. The Baltic origins had significantly thicker bark than the Finnish origins. A moderate positive correlation was detected between the seed origin latitude and the incidence of darkened core wood in the southern trial, where the darkened core wood was more common in the Finnish origins than in the Baltic ones. The highest proportion of trees with frost cracks was detected in the south-western Latvian origins growing in central Finland. Seed transfers from the Baltic would have an increasing effect on the bark thickness of birch logs, but no or only minor effects on wood density. Based on our results, there is no reason to recommend the use of non-native Baltic seed origins in Finland instead of the native locally adapted seed sources.

  • Viherä-Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anneli.vihera-aarnio@luke.fi (email)
  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail: pike.velling@phnet.fi
article id 7728, category Research article
Liam Donnelly, Sven-Olof Lundqvist, Conor O’Reilly. (2017). Inter- and intra-annual wood property variation in juvenile wood between six Sitka spruce clones. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7728. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7728
Highlights: Wood property differences resulted primarily from variation in the proportions of early- and latewood in each annual ring; Width of early- and latewood bands in each ring was found to be a more important determinant of juvenile wood quality than the characteristics of the cells within each band; Wood properties differed greatly between clones, suggesting that there is potential to improve juvenile wood properties through selective breeding.

Increased growth rates have reduced rotation lengths, increasing the proportion of juvenile wood relative to mature wood, which may negatively affect mechanical performance of sawn timber. However, there is limited information available on the potential impact of breeding for vigour on juvenile wood in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière). In this study, the relationship between vigour (based on total height) and wood properties was investigated in six-year-old Sitka spruce clones grown in two replicated field trials in Ireland. Six clones were evaluated, two clones from each of three vigour (high, intermediate and low) classes. Discs were cut from the base of one ramet per replication for each clone to assess wood quality attributes. Radial tracheid width was significantly and positively correlated with ring width and height, and was negatively correlated with density. The wood of the most vigorous clone had significantly larger ring width with thinner cell walls and wider tracheids than all clones in the two other vigour classes, resulting in lower mean wood density. Latewood properties for all wood attributes measured differed significantly between the two sites. Wood property differences resulted primarily from variation in the proportions of early- and latewood in each annual ring. Additionally, the width of early- and latewood bands in each ring was found to be a more important determinant of juvenile wood quality than the characteristics of the cells within each band. Wood properties differed greatly between clones, suggesting that there is potential to improve juvenile wood properties through selective breeding.

  • Donnelly, UCD Forestry, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland ORCID ID:E-mail: liam.donnelly@ucdconnect.ie (email)
  • Lundqvist, Innventia Ab, Drottning Kristinas väg 61, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: svenolof.lundqvist@innventia.com
  • O’Reilly, UCD Forestry, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland ORCID ID:E-mail: conor.oreilly@ucd.ie
article id 6991, category Research article
Isabel León, Juan José García, Manuel Fernández, Javier Vázquez-Piqué, Raúl Tapias. (2017). Differences in root growth of Quercus ilex and Quercus suber seedlings infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 6991. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.6991
Highlights: Root growth of two Quercus sp. differs significantly after infection with Phytophthora cinnamomi; We observed a marked decrease in the growth of new roots in Quercus ilex with increasing inoculum level; Roots were longer but thinner with a moderate inoculum level in Quercus suber.

In the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is causing irreversible damage to populations of the two most common species of Quercus, the holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) and the cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Although the symptoms are similar in the two species, the mortality rates are different. We found significant differences in the post-infection growth of the root system as a function of tree species, as well as initial plant size, and inoculum level. We observed a marked decrease in the growth of new roots in Q. ilex with increasing inoculum level, while in Q. suber, we found longer but thinner roots with a moderate inoculum level. In both species, we observed a worsening in the water status of the plants from the lowest inoculum level.

  • León, University of Huelva, Agroforestry department, Calle Dr. Cantero Cuadrado, 6, 21004 Huelva, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: isabel.leon@dcaf.uhu.es
  • García, University of Huelva, Agroforestry department, Calle Dr. Cantero Cuadrado, 6, 21004 Huelva, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: juanjose.garcia@dcaf.uhu.es
  • Fernández, University of Huelva, Agroforestry department, Calle Dr. Cantero Cuadrado, 6, 21004 Huelva, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: nonoe@uhu.es
  • Vázquez-Piqué, University of Huelva, Agroforestry department, Calle Dr. Cantero Cuadrado, 6, 21004 Huelva, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: jpique@dcaf.uhu.es
  • Tapias, University of Huelva, Agroforestry department, Calle Dr. Cantero Cuadrado, 6, 21004 Huelva, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: rtapias@uhu.es (email)
article id 6989, category Research article
Åsa Gustafsson. (2017). Assessing work order information quality in harvesting. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 6989. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.6989
Highlights: This paper concludes that information quality with regards to accuracy in work order information components pertaining to “Landing – placement and size”, “Cleaning understory trees – not conducted and of low standard”, are lacking and need to be improved in harvesting.

Being a logging contractor involves several uncertainties, amongst others, information quality in the work order received from customers. The information quality of work orders is of the utmost importance for logging contactors, in order to be able to plan and conduct work properly. The purpose of this paper is three-fold: 1) identifying work order information components in harvesting, 2) identifying work order information quality dimensions in harvesting and 3) assessing work order information quality in harvesting. The paper is based on interviews and a survey. Various interviews took place in Sweden with professionals within the harvesting industry as well as logging contractors, and thereafter a survey was developed. Random selection was conducted and 100 Swedish logging contractors were contacted by telephone in order to answer the survey, with a response rate of 82% from the sample. The paper concludes that the information quality dimension of accuracy concerns the individual work order information components, whereas timeliness is related to receiving the complete work orders. A factor analysis has been conducted with five factors emerging. The assessment of work order information quality in harvesting implies that the potential for improvement exists with regard to increasing the accuracy of the order information for the components of “Cleaning under story trees – not conducted” and “Cleaning under story trees – of low standard” as well as “Landing – size”, and “Landing – placement”. However, their effect on capacity is utilization needs to be explored.

  • Gustafsson, Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: asa.gustafsson@lnu.se (email)
article id 6977, category Research article
Anett Schibalski, Aleksi Lehtonen, Thomas Hickler, Boris Schröder. (2017). Identifying important topics for model refinement in a widely used process-based model informed by correlative model analyses in a boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 6977. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.6977
Highlights: Continental-scale model parameterization of widely used LPJ-GUESS experiences problems when applied on the regional level; Competition, disturbances and soil conditions are crucial for explaining treeline position in Finland, besides climatic limitation; Picea abies is overly dominant in LPJ-GUESS model, as key competitive mechanisms are not implemented in sufficient detail.

Models attempting to predict treeline shifts in changing climates must include the relevant ecological processes in sufficient detail. A previous correlative model study has pointed to nutrients, competition, and temperature as the most important factors shaping the treelines of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Betula pubescens Ehrh. in Finnish Lapland. Here, we applied a widely used process-based dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) to (i) test its capability to simulate observed spatial and temporal patterns of the main tree species in Finnish Lapland, and (ii) to explore the model representation of important processes in order to guide further model development. A European parameterization of LPJ-GUESS overestimated especially P. abies biomass and the species’ northern range limit. We identified implemented processes to adjust (competition, disturbance) and crucial processes in boreal forests to include (nutrient limitation, forest management) which account for the model’s failure to (edaphically) restrict P. abies in Finnish Lapland and the resulting species imbalance. Key competitive mechanisms are shade and drought tolerance, nutrient limitation, fire resistance, and susceptibility to disturbances (storm, herbivory) which we discussed with respect to boreal ecology and promising model developments to provide a starting point for future model development.

  • Schibalski, Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: a.schibalski@tu-braunschweig.de (email)
  • Lehtonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: aleksi.lehtonen@luke.fi
  • Hickler, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Department of Physical Geography, Goethe University, Altenhöferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: thomas.hickler@senckenberg.de
  • Schröder, Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany; Berlin-Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research BBIB, Altensteinstr. 6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: boris.schroeder@tu-bs.de
article id 5659, category Research article
Juha Laitila, Anssi Ahtikoski, Jaakko Repola, Johanna Routa. (2017). Pre-feasibility study of supply systems based on artificial drying of delimbed stem forest chips. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 5659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.5659
Highlights: With artificial drying and quick delivery, avoiding dry material losses of harvested timber, it could be possible to reduce the current costs of the prevailing procurement system based on natural drying of stored timber at roadside landings; The maximum cost for the prospective drying process of fresh chips corresponds to, e.g., organization costs or stumpage price of delimbed stems.

This study was aimed at determining the maximum cost level of artificial drying required for cost-efficient operation. This was done using a system analysis approach, in which the harvesting potential and procurement cost of alternative fuel chip production systems were compared at the stand and regional level. The accumulation and procurement cost of chipped delimbed stems from young forests were estimated within a 100 km transport distance from a hypothetical end use facility located in northern Finland. Logging and transportation costs, stumpage prices, tied up capital, dry matter losses and moisture content of harvested timber were considered in the study. Moisture content of artificially dried fuel chips made of fresh timber (55%) was set to 20%, 30% and 40% in the comparisons. Moisture content of fuel chips based on natural drying during storing was 40%. Transporting costs were calculated according to new higher permissible dimensions and weight limits for truck-trailers. The procurement cost calculations indicated that with artificial drying and by avoiding dry material losses of timber, it could be possible to reduce current costs of the prevailing procurement system based on natural drying of timber at roadside landings. The maximum cost level of artificial drying ranged between 1.2–3.2 € MWh–1 depending on the supply chain, moisture content and procurement volume of fuel chips. This cost margin corresponds to, e.g., organization, forwarding and transportation costs or stumpage price of delimbed stems.

  • Laitila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.laitila@luke.fi (email)
  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.ahtikoski@luke.fi
  • Repola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@luke.fi
  • Routa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johanna.routa@luke.fi
article id 1760, category Research article
Marek Fajstavr, Kyriaki Giagli, Hanuš Vavrčík, Vladimír Gryc, Josef Urban. (2017). The effect of stem girdling on xylem and phloem formation in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 1760. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1760
Highlights: Stem girdling ceased the cambial activity, below the girdled area, immediately after the removal of the bark strip; Pinus sylvestris survived for up to two years after stem girdling; The girdled trees formed phloem cells above the girdled area but failed to form latewood cells in the next growing season.

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a resilient, wide spread species. This paper reports on the xylem and phloem cell formation process, before and after, the species was put under artificial stress by stem girdling. Microcore method was applied to a healthy control group and a standing group of girdled trees within an 80-year-old pine forest for two consecutive growing seasons (2013 and 2014). The stem girdling was applied in the middle of the first growing season (July 2013). Cambial activity timings (onset and cessation of cell division), cell formation intensity, cell differentiation, and the dynamics of the annual radial increment in the stem were analyzed. Cambial activity was inhibited and eventually ceased below the stem girdling immediately after the removal of the strip. Therefore, no latewood tracheids were formed. However, above the stem girdling and in the control trees, cell formation and tissue differentiation continued until the end of the growing season, with the girdled trees moving at a less intensive pace but for a longer period of time. During the following growing season (2014), the cambial zone was reactivated only above the stem girdling, not below, and eventually the girdled trees died. In 2014, the onset of the cambial activity was delayed and the division rate of the cells was slower in the girdled trees. Furthermore, the girdled trees formed less phloem cells than the control trees.

  • Fajstavr, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: fajstavr.marek@seznam.cz (email)
  • Giagli, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: kyriaki.giagli@mendelu.cz
  • Vavrčík, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: vavrcik@mendelu.cz
  • Gryc, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: gryc@mendelu.cz
  • Urban, Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Geobiocenology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic;  Siberian Federal University, Svobodnyj Prospect 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: josef.urban@email.cz
article id 1691, category Research article
Enéas Ricardo Konzen, Raquel Peron, Márcio Akira Ito, Gilvano Ebling Brondani, Siu Mui Tsai. (2017). Molecular identification of bamboo genera and species based on RAPD-RFLP markers. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 1691. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1691
Highlights: We investigated the potential of RAPD-RFLP (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) in detecting genetic relationships among bamboo genera and species; RFLP profiles resolved in acrylamide gels revealed high number of markers, which accurately differentiated species and genera, based on cophenetic correlation coefficients; We recommend RAPD-RFLP for analyses of genetic diversity and divergence among bamboo genera, species and varieties.

Bamboo species have a very significant ecological and economic impact. Determining morphological and genetic differences among bamboo genera and species are crucial to explore desirable traits for breeding purposes. Several advances have been made in the taxonomy of bamboos by using molecular fingerprinting tools and next generation sequencing technologies. Nevertheless, classical molecular markers such as RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) and ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) also provide an accurate discrimination among genera and species. Moreover, the RAPD-RFLP (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method, in which amplification products from RAPD are digested with restriction enzymes, is a reliable, fast and cost-effective method for fingerprinting. RAPD-RFLP has been scarcely used in the literature and no report regarding bamboo taxonomy is available with this method. Here we explored the molecular (RAPD, RAPD-RFLP) variation among genera (Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Guadua and Phyllostachys) and species of bamboo cultivated in Brazil. Both molecular markers allowed clear distinction among the genera studied. Moreover, high cophenetic correlation values in UPGMA clusters indicated their potential for discriminating bamboo species. The digestion of RAPD products (RFLP) resulted in high number of polymorphic bands and produced very characteristic profiles for each genus with three enzyme combinations (HindIII/HaeIII, HinfI/RsaI, and single digestion with MspI). We recommend RAPD-RFLP as a reproducible and informative method for screening differences among genera, species and varieties of bamboos. Providing a cost-effective and accurate method for species identification and characterization is straightforward for bamboo conservation, management and breeding.

  • Konzen, Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Centenário Av., 303, Piracicaba, SP, P.O. Box 96, Brazil; Forest Sciences, Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG, P.O. Box 3037, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: erkonzen@gmail.com (email)
  • Peron, Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Centenário Av., 303, Piracicaba, SP, P.O. Box 96, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: rperon@purdue.edu
  • Ito, Embrapa Western Agriculture, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), BR 163 Rd., km 253, Dourados, MS, P.O. Box 449, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: marcio.ito@embrapa.br
  • Brondani, Forest Sciences, Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG, P.O. Box 3037, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: gebrondani@gmail.com
  • Tsai, Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Centenário Av., 303, Piracicaba, SP, P.O. Box 96, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: tsai@cena.usp.br
article id 1683, category Research article
Karol Przeździecki, Jarosław Zawadzki, Chris Cieszewski, Pete Bettinger. (2017). Estimation of soil moisture across broad landscapes of Georgia and South Carolina using the triangle method applied to MODIS satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 1683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1683
Highlights: Temperature vegetation dryness indices were calculated from MODIS satellite imagery to estimate subsurface soil moisture at different depths using the triangle method; Observations were carried out over the vast areas of Georgia and South Carolina, USA, covered with diverse land uses that, included dense forests and agricultural areas; The triangle method may be useful in forestry management applications where the productivity potential of a region and the hydrologic role of forests in that region are of concern.

We describe here a study based on analysis of vegetation indices and land surface temperatures, which provides relevant information for estimating soil moisture at regional scales. Through an analysis of MODIS satellite imagery and in situ moisture data, the triangle method was used to develop a conceptual land surface temperature−vegetation index model, and spatial temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) values to describe soil moisture relationships for a broad landscape. This study was situated mainly within two states of the southern United States (Georgia and South Carolina). The total study area was about 30 million hectares. The analyses were conducted using information gathered from the 2009 growing season (from the end of March to September). The results of the study showed that soil moisture content was inversely proportional to TVDI, and that TVDI based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) had a slightly higher correlation with soil moisture than TVDI based on the enhanced vegetation index (EVI).

  • Przeździecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, 00-653, Nowowiejska 20, Warszawa, Poland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2275-5223 E-mail: karol_przezdziecki@is.pw.edu.pl (email)
  • Zawadzki, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, 00-653, Nowowiejska 20, Warszawa, Poland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2842-0018 E-mail: j.j.zawadzki@gmail.com
  • Cieszewski, University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 E Green St, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2842-4406 E-mail: thebiomat@gmail.com
  • Bettinger, University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 E Green St, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5454-3970 E-mail: pbettinger@warnell.uga.edu

Category: Research note

article id 7749, category Research note
Eeva J. Vainio, Sannakajsa M. Velmala, Pertti Salo, Seppo Huhtinen, Michael M. Müller. (2017). Defoliation of Tilia cordata trees associated with Apiognomonia errabunda infection in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7749. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7749
Highlights: Defoliation of Tilia cordata was investigated by fungal isolation from symptomatic leaf petioles and ITS sequence determination; The disease symptoms were associated with the presence of Apiognomonia errabunda; We report the first nucleotide sequences of A. errabunda from the Nordic countries.

We investigated the causative agent of a disease outbreak affecting small-leaved limes (Tilia cordata Mill.) and resulting in darkening of the leaf petioles and excessive defoliation during summer 2016 in southern Finland. The fungal species composition of the symptomatic petioles was examined by culture isolation and molecular identification using ITS rDNA sequences, which revealed the most prevalent fungal species present in the petioles as Apiognomonia errabunda (Roberge) Höhn. Based on reviewing curated herbarium specimens deposited at the Universities of Helsinki and Turku, A. errabunda is native and widely distributed in small-leaved limes in Finland, and occasionally infects also other broadleaved trees, including Quercus robur L. and ornamental species of Tilia L. and Fagus L. The ITS sequence analysis conducted during this study revealed minor within-species polymorphisms similar to those observed earlier in the Central European and Russian populations of A. errabunda, and reports the first nucleotide sequences of this species from the Nordic countries.

  • Vainio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6739-7968 E-mail: eeva.vainio@luke.fi (email)
  • Velmala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sannakajsa.velmala@luke.fi
  • Salo, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Botanical Museum, P.O. Box 7, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.salo@helsinki.fi
  • Huhtinen, University of Turku, Herbarium, Biodiversity Unit, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sephuh@utu.fi
  • Müller, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: micms.muller@gmail.com

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