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Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 | 2008

Category: Research article

article id 248, category Research article
Tuula Jyske, Harri Mäkinen & Pekka Saranpää. (2008). Wood density within Norway spruce stems. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 248. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.248
We studied the variation in average wood density of annual rings, earlywood density, and latewood density in addition to ring width and latewood percentage within Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stems from the pith to the bark, and from the stem base towards the stem apex. Moreover, the variation in wood density within annual rings was studied at the different heights and radial positions in the stem. The material consisted of 85 trees from central and south-eastern Finland. Variation between the annual rings accounted for 11–27% of the total variation in wood density. Only small differences (3–6%) in wood density were found between different heights in the stem. The largest (49–80%) variation in wood density was found within the annual rings. The difference in wood density between earlywood and latewood was smaller in the rings near the pith than in the outer rings. The increasing wood density from the pith outwards was related to increasing latewood density and latewood percentage, whereas the earlywood density increased only slightly from the pith outwards. In a given cambial age (i.e., given rings from the pith), the average wood density of annual rings increased with increasing stem height. In contrast, in the rings formed in the same calendar years (i.e., given rings from the bark), the average wood density of annual rings decreased with increasing stem height. The results of this study verify our knowledge of wood density variation and can further contribute to creating models to predict wood density.
  • Jyske, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.jyske@metla.fi (email)
  • Mäkinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saranpää, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 247, category Research article
Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen & Raimo Jaatinen. (2008). Differences in growth and wood properties between narrow and normal crowned types of Norway spruce grown at narrow spacing in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 247. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.247
In recent years there has been increased interest in the so called narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula), which is a rare mutant of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten), as a suitable wood raw material source for pulp and paper production. This is because it is less sensitive to competition than the normal crowned Norway spruce, and thus, could be more productive especially at dense spacing. In the above context, we investigated how the growth and yield (such as height, diameter, stem volume and ring width) in addition to wood density traits and fibre properties (such as wood density, fibre length and width, cell wall thickness and fibre coarseness) were affected in trees from 9 full-sib families representing narrow crowned Norway spruce grown at narrow spacing of 1 m 1 m in Southern Finland. For comparison, we used normal crowned Norway spruce trees from 6 breeding regions. We found that, compared to growth and yield traits, wood density traits and fibre properties showed, on average, lower phenotypic variations. In addition, these variations were smaller for narrow crowned families than for normal crowned genetic entries. Narrow crowned families also showed, on average, higher growth and yield and fibre length, but lower wood density. Moreover, the phenotypic correlations between growth, yield, wood density traits and fibre properties, ranged, on average, from moderate (narrow crowned) to high (normal crowned). As a whole, the growth and wood properties of narrow crowned families were found to be less sensitive to tree competition than the normal crowned genetic entries used as a comparison.
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ane.zubizarreta@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jaatinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 246, category Research article
Maria Jonsson. (2008). Live-storage of Picea abies for two summers after storm felling in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.246
After recent severe storm fellings in Sweden, as harvest, transport, and storage capacities were insufficient, interest in live-storage (leaving windthrown trees in the stand) increased. This study follows windthrown Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees during 20 months, i.e. two summers, of live-storage in southern Sweden. Moisture content, blue stain, and storage decay were compared in trees from a site with all trees windthrown and a site with scattered windthrows. After the first summer of live-storage, the quality losses were small. After 20 months, the trees had dried significantly and had numerous infestations of blue stain and storage decay. Trees from the site with scattered windthrows were of better quality compared to trees from the site with all trees windthrown. Live-storage is a suitable method for one year of storage, but the second year losses in wood quality are considerable.
  • Jonsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Products, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.jonsson@sprod.slu.se (email)
article id 245, category Research article
Saija Huuskonen, Jari Hynynen & Risto Ojansuu. (2008). Stand characteristics and external quality of young Scots pine stands in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 245. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.245
The effects of silvicultural practices (regeneration method and young stand management) on the stand characteristics of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) stands were studied. Stand density, mean diameter, crown ratio and external quality of young Scots pine stands were analysed on the basis of extensive inventory data. The study material consisted of 181 stands containing inventory growth plots, representing the most common site types for Scots pine and covering all the important wood production areas in Finland. Intensive management practices, i.e. artificial regeneration and precommercial thinning, clearly enhanced mean diameter development of the stand. The overall stand density of the crop trees was relatively low in the material (1925 trees ha–1). In more than one third of the stands, the stem number of crop trees was below 1500 trees ha–1. Stand density was not affected by forest management, but it was slightly higher in Southern than in Northern Finland. The geographical location, in terms of annual effective temperature sum, affected the average slenderness and crown ratio. At a given mean stand diameter, the dominant height of the stand was lower, and the mean crown ratio was higher, in Northern than in Southern Finland. The average external quality of the Scots pine trees was relatively low. The proportion of trees without any observed defects was 54%. The most common external defects were curved stems (23%) and branchiness (9%). Branchiness was more frequent among the largest trees, while curved stems were more common in smaller trees. Defects were the most frequent in planted stands, and in stands growing on fresh sites. The defects were more frequent in Northern Finland than in Southern Finland. The relatively low stand density and poor external quality of the young stands emphasize the importance of stem quality as a tree selection criterion in commercial thinnings of Scots pine stands, if the goal is to produce high quality timber.
  • Huuskonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: saija.huuskonen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Hynynen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ojansuu, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 244, category Research article
Georg E. Kindermann, Ian McCallum, Steffen Fritz & Michael Obersteiner. (2008). A global forest growing stock, biomass and carbon map based on FAO statistics. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 244. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.244
Currently, information on forest biomass is available from a mixture of sources, including in-situ measurements, national forest inventories, administrative-level statistics, model outputs and regional satellite products. These data tend to be regional or national, based on different methodologies and not easily accessible. One of the few maps available is the Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO 2005) which contains aggregated country-level information about the growing stock, biomass and carbon stock in forests for 229 countries and territories. This paper presents a technique to downscale the aggregated results of the FRA2005 from the country level to a half degree global spatial dataset containing forest growing stock; above/below-ground biomass, dead wood and total forest biomass; and above-ground, below-ground, dead wood, litter and soil carbon. In all cases, the number of countries providing data is incomplete. For those countries with missing data, values were estimated using regression equations based on a downscaling model. The downscaling method is derived using a relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and biomass and the relationship between human impact and biomass assuming a decrease in biomass with an increased level of human activity. The results, presented here, represent one of the first attempts to produce a consistent global spatial database at half degree resolution containing forest growing stock, biomass and carbon stock values. All results from the methodology described in this paper are available online at www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/.
  • Kindermann, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: kinder@iiasa.ac.at (email)
  • McCallum, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Fritz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Obersteiner, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 243, category Research article
Rupert Seidl, Werner Rammer, Petra Lasch, Franz-Werner Badeck & Manfred J. Lexer. (2008). Does conversion of even-aged, secondary coniferous forests affect carbon sequestration? A simulation study under changing environmental conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.243
To circumvent problems associated with even-aged, pure coniferous stands propagated outside their natural range alternative management strategies and conversion programs are currently discussed in Central Europe. However, a mainstreaming of such adapted silvicultural systems with climate change mitigation objectives is missing to date. In this study the objective was to assess in situ C storage under conditions of climate change in a secondary Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest management unit in Austria. Four management strategies (Norway spruce age class forestry, transition to continuous cover forestry with Norway spruce, conversion to mixed conifer/broadleaved stands, no management) were investigated under current climate and two transient climate change scenarios in a simulation study. By comparing the results of two independent forest ecosystem models (PICUS v1.41, 4C) applied under identical forcings and boundary conditions we aimed at addressing uncertainties in model-based projections. A transition to continuous cover forestry increased C storage in all climate scenarios (+45.4 tC·ha–1 to +74.0 tC·ha–1 over the 100 year analysis period) compared to the approximately balanced C budget under the age class system. For the mixed conifer/broadleaved management variant predictions of the two models diverged significantly (+29.4 tC·ha–1 and –10.6 tC·ha–1 in PICUS and 4C respectively, current climate). With regard to climate change impacts both models agreed on distinct effects on productivity but lower sensitivity of C stocks due to compensation from respiration and adaptive harvest levels. In conclusion, considering the potential effects of silvicultural decisions on C stocks climate change mitigation should be addressed explicitly in programs advocating targeted change in management paradigms.
  • Seidl, Institute of Silviculture, BOKU, Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: rupert.seidl@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Rammer, Institute of Silviculture, BOKU, Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lasch, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research e.V., Potsdam, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Badeck, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research e.V., Potsdam, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lexer, Institute of Silviculture, BOKU, Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 242, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen & Paula Jylhä. (2008). Fifteen-year response of weed control intensity and seedling type on Norway spruce survival and growth on arable land. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 242. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.242
The effects of seedling type (2-year-old container seedlings vs. 4-year-old bare-rooted seedlings) and post-planting vegetation control intensity on the growth and survival of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were compared based on 15-year data from a field experiment established on arable land. Vegetation control treatments with terbuthylazine and glyphosate were carried out 1–3 times on successive years, either as overall or spot applications. The highest stand volumes were obtained with the combination of large bare-rooted seedlings and effective vegetation control. Volume of bare-rooted seedlings was greater than that of container seedlings in all treatments (e.g. on the control plots 9.5 m3/ha vs. 4.1 m3/ha). The best results were obtained with the most intensive weed control treatments (spot treatment repeated twice and overall application repeated three times). These treatments increased both bare-rooted and containerised seedlings’ survival by 33–40% units and their height, breast height diameter, and volume by 45–49%, 17–47%, and 249–279%, respectively. In terms of survival, the container seedlings, in due part to their smaller size, benefited from vegetation control more than the bare-rooted seedlings. Successive early summer frosts damaged the seedlings and significantly retarded their growth. The frequency of frost damage was not affected by vegetation control nor was it attributed to seedling type.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Jylhä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 241, category Research article
Hailemariam Temesgen, Tara M. Barrett & Greg Latta. (2008). Estimating cavity tree abundance using Nearest Neighbor Imputation methods for western Oregon and Washington forests. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 241. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.241
Cavity trees contribute to diverse forest structure and wildlife habitat. For a given stand, the size and density of cavity trees indicate its diversity, complexity, and suitability for wildlife habitat. Size and density of cavity trees vary with stand age, density, and structure. Using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data collected in western Oregon and western Washington, we applied correlation analysis and graphical approaches to examine relationships between cavity tree abundance and stand characteristics. Cavity tree abundance was negatively correlated with site index and percent composition of conifers, but positively correlated with stand density, quadratic mean diameter, and percent composition of hardwoods. Using FIA data, we examined the performance of Most Similar Neighbor (MSN), k nearest neighbor, and weighted MSN imputation with three variable transformations (regular, square root, and logarithmic) and Classification and Regression Tree with MSN imputation to estimate cavity tree abundance from stand attributes. There was a large reduction in mean root mean square error from 20% to 50% reference sets, but very little reduction in using the 80% reference sets, corresponding to the decreases in mean distances. The MSN imputation using square root transformation provided better estimates of cavity tree abundance for western Oregon and western Washington forests. We found that cavity trees were only 0.25 percent of live trees and 13.8 percent of dead trees in the forests of western Oregon and western Washington, thus rarer and more difficult to predict than many other forest attributes. Potential applications of MSN imputation include selecting and modeling wildlife habitat to support forest planning efforts, regional inventories, and evaluation of different management scenarios.
  • Temesgen, Department of Forest Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: hailemariam.temesgen@oregonstate.edu (email)
  • Barrett, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Anchorage, AK, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Latta, Department of Forest Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 240, category Research article
Monika Dering, Andrzej Lewandowski, Krzysztof Ufnalski & Aleksandra Kedzierska. (2008). How far to the east was the migration of white oaks from the Iberian refugium? Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 240. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.240
The goal of this study was to investigate the postglacial recolonization pathways of the white oaks Quercus robur and Quercus petrea in Poland, and especially to evaluate the impact of Iberian refugium in this part of Europe. Chloroplast DNA polymorphism of 310 individuals older than 200 years was analyzed. Six haplotypes in total were found to differentiate three maternal lineages: the Balkan (haplotypes 4, 5, and 7), the Apennine (haplotypes 1 and 2), and the Iberian (haplotype 12). The most abundant were members of the Balkan (71.5% of all samples) and the Apennine lineage (23.1%), and only 5.4% of individuals were of Iberian origin. The geographic distribution of the three lineages is clearly structured. The northernmost territories of Poland are occupied by Apennine (haplotype 1) and Iberian (haplotype 12) lineages, whereas samples in central and southern Poland represents the Balkan lineage. The population structure might be the result of competitive colonization among lineages after migration from different refugia. It is likely that colonization of northernmost parts of Poland by the Balkan lineage was halted or at least hampered due to the arrival of the Apennine populations. The most significant result of this study concerns the presence and status of the Iberian lineage in Poland, which is most likely of natural origin.
  • Dering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Parkowa 5, Kornik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: usnea@o2.pl (email)
  • Lewandowski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Parkowa 5, Kornik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ufnalski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Parkowa 5, Kornik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kedzierska, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Parkowa 5, Kornik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 249, category Review article
Rimvydas Vasaitis, Jan Stenlid, Iben M. Thomsen, Pia Barklund & Anders Dahlberg. (2008). Stump removal to control root rot in forest stands. A literature study. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 249. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.249
Tree stumps are expected to be increasingly used for energy production in Fennoscandia, thus environmental consequences of stump removal from forest land must be assessed. Aim of this work was to compile available data on the efficacy of stump removal in eradication of root rot fungi (Heterobasidion, Armillaria, and Phellinus), and to review its potential impacts on establishment and productivity of next forest generation. Site disturbance and some technical and economical aspects are discussed, and needs for future research outlined in northern European context. The review demonstrates that stump removal from clear-felled forest areas in most cases results in, a) reduction of root rot in the next forest generation, b) improved seedling establishment, and c) increased tree growth and stand productivity. Observed disturbances caused to a site by stumping operations are normally acceptable. The available data strongly suggests that possibly many (if achievable, all) rot-containing stumps must be removed during harvesting of stumps. Provided equal availability, the priority should be given for stump removal from root rot-infested forest areas, instead of healthy ones. As most studies were done in North America and Britain, several questions must be yet answered under Fennoscandian conditions: a) if and to which extent the conventional stump removal for biofuel on clear-felled sites could reduce the occurrence of Heterobasidion and Armillaria in the next forest generation, b) what impact is it likely to have on survival of replanted tree seedlings, and c) what consequences will there be for growth and productivity of next forest generation.
  • Vasaitis, Department of Forest Mycology & Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: rimvys.vasaitis@mykopat.slu.se (email)
  • Stenlid, Department of Forest Mycology & Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Thomsen, Forest & Landscape, University of Copenhagen, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hoersholm, Denmark ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Barklund, Department of Forest Mycology & Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dahlberg, Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

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