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Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 | 2018

Category: Research article

article id 10013, category Research article
Hardo Becker, Jürgen Aosaar, Mats Varik, Gunnar Morozov, Kristiina Aun, Ülo Mander, Kaido Soosaar, Veiko Uri. (2018). Annual net nitrogen mineralization and litter flux in well-drained downy birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine forest ecosystems. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 10013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10013
Highlights: The net nitrogen mineralization (NNM) flux in drained peat soils depends largely on the C/N ratio and tree species; The soil NNM process is affected by trees through organic litter input into soil; Pine stand in low-fertility drained transitional bog is dominated by net ammonification; Birch and spruce stands on the fertile drained peat soil with higher pH and N content are dominated by net nitrification.

The main aim of the current study was to estimate the annual net nitrogen mineralization (NNM) flux in stands of different tree species growing on drained peatlands, as well as to clarify the effect of tree species, soil properties and litter on annual NNM dynamics. Three study sites were set up in May 2014: a downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) stand and a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in Oxalis full-drained swamp (ODS) and a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Myrtillus full-drained swamp (MDS). The NNM flux was estimated using the in situ method with incubated polyethylene bags. The highest value of NNM was found in stands that were growing on fertile ODS: 127.5 kg N ha–1 yr–1 and 87.7 kg N ha–1 yr–1, in the downy birch stand and in the Norway spruce stand, respectively. A significantly lower annual NNM flux (11.8 kg N ha–1 yr–1) occurred in the Scots pine stand growing in MDS. Nitrification was highest at fertile ODS sites and ammonification was the highest at the low fertility MDS site. For all study sites, positive correlation was found between soil temperature and NNM intensity. The difference in annual NNM between the downy birch stand and the Norway spruce stand growing on similar drained fertile peatlands was due to litter quality. The annual N input into the soil through leaf litter was the highest at the downy birch site where also the C/N ratio of litter was the lowest. The second highest N input into the soil was found in the spruce stand and the lowest in the pine stand.

  • Becker, Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: hardo.becker@emu.ee (email)
  • Aosaar, Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrgen.aosaar@emu.ee
  • Varik, Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.varik@emu.ee
  • Morozov, Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: gunnar.morozov@emu.ee
  • Aun, Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: kristiina.aun@emu.ee
  • Mander, Department of Geography, Institute of Ecology & Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: ulo.mander@ut.ee
  • Soosaar, Department of Geography, Institute of Ecology & Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: kaido.soosaar@ut.ee
  • Uri, Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: veiko.uri@emu.ee
article id 10002, category Research article
Bayasaa Tumenjargal, Futoshi Ishiguri, Haruna Aiso-Sanada, Yusuke Takahashi, Bayartsetseg Baasan, Ganbaatar Chultem, Jyunichi Ohshima, Shinso Yokota. (2018). Geographic variations of wood properties of Larix sibirica naturally grown in Mongolia. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 10002. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10002
Highlights: Significant differences (p  < 0.01) among five stands were found in tree height, stress-wave velocity of stems, dynamic Young’s modulus of stems and logs, annual ring width, and latewood percentage, suggesting that there was geographic variation of mechanical properties of wood in Larix sibirica (Münchh.) Ledeb. grown in Mongolia; Dynamic Young’s modulus of logs in L. sibirica trees can be predicted by stress-wave velocity of stems; Stem diameter of L. sibirica naturally grown in Mongolia is closely related to radial growth at initial stage of growth, especially within the first twenty years.

Geographic variations in growth, stress-wave velocity of stem, dynamic Young’s modulus of stems and logs, annual ring width, latewood percentage and basic density were investigated for Larix sibirica (Münchh.) Ledeb. naturally grown in Mongolia. A total of 250 trees with 20 to 30 cm in stem diameter at a height of 1.3 m above ground level were selected from each natural stand in five different provenances in Mongolia. In addition, five trees in each stand were cut for measuring dynamic Young’s modulus of stems and logs, annual ring width, latewood percentage and basic density. Mean values of stress-wave velocity of stems in each stand ranged from 2.92 to 3.41 km s–1, and the mean value of five stands was 3.23 km s–1. Mean values of dynamic Young’s modulus of logs in each stand ranged from 5.17 to 9.72 GPa. A significant correlation (r = 0.798, p < 0.01) was found between stress-wave velocity of stems and dynamic Young’s modulus of logs. Among the five stands, the highest and the lowest values of average annual ring number were 193 and 44, respectively. Mean values of basic density in five trees within each stand were examined and ranged from 0.52 to 0.56 g cm–3. Significant differences among five stands were found in tree height, stress-wave velocity of stem, dynamic Young’s modulus of stems and logs, annual ring width and latewood percentage, suggesting that L. sibirica trees naturally grown in Mongolia have geographic variations in mechanical properties of wood.

  • Tumenjargal, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8505, Japan; United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan; Research and Training Institute of Forestry and Wood Industry, Mongolian University Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar 14191, Mongolia ORCID ID:E-mail: t_bayasaa88@yahoo.com
  • Ishiguri, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8505, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: ishiguri@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp (email)
  • Aiso-Sanada, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: haiso@ffpri.affrc.go.jp
  • Takahashi, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8505, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: zo.r.by0814@gmail.com
  • Baasan, Research and Training Institute of Forestry and Wood Industry, Mongolian University Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar 14191, Mongolia ORCID ID:E-mail: bayartsetseg@must.edu.mn
  • Chultem, Research and Training Institute of Forestry and Wood Industry, Mongolian University Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar 14191, Mongolia ORCID ID:E-mail: t_bayasaa88@yahoo.com
  • Ohshima, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8505, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: joshima@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp
  • Yokota, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8505, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: yokotas@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp
article id 9996, category Research article
Mulualem Tigabu, Mostafa Farhadi, Lars-Göran Stener, Per C. Odén. (2018). Visible + Near Infrared Spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for identifying birch species. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 9996. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9996
Highlights: Multivariate modelling of visible + near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of single seeds distinguished Betula pubescens and B. pendula with 100% and 99% accuracy, respectively; The results demonstrate the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for classification of species that have morphological resemblance.

The genus Betula L. is composed of several species, which are difficult to distinguish in the field on the basis of morphological traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic importance of using visible + near infrared (Vis + NIR) spectra of single seeds for differentiating Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh. Seeds from several families (controlled crossings of known parent trees) of each species were used and Vis + NIR reflectance spectra were obtained from single seeds. Multivariate discriminant models were developed by Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures – Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). The OPLS-DA model fitted on Vis + NIR spectra recognized B. pubescens with 100% classification accuracy while the prediction accuracy of class membership for B. pendula was 99%. However, the discriminant models fitted on NIR spectra alone resulted in 100% classification accuracies for both species. Absorption bands accounted for distinguishing between birch species were attributed to differences in color and chemical composition, presumably polysaccharides, proteins and fatty acids, of the seeds. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for classification of species that have morphological resemblance.

  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mulualem.tigabu@slu.se (email)
  • Farhadi, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mostafa.farhadi@gmail.com
  • Stener, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars-goran.stener@skogforsk.se
  • Odén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per.christer.oden@slu.se
article id 9972, category Research article
Jukka Malinen, Harri Kilpeläinen, Erkki Verkasalo. (2018). Validating the predicted saw log and pulpwood proportions and gross value of Scots pine and Norway spruce harvest at stand level by Most Similar Neighbour analyses and a stem quality database. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 9972. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9972
Highlights: Non-parametric prediction together with external stem quality database provides predictions usable for pre-harvest assessment at a stand level; The prediction of Norway spruce assortment recovery and value proved to be more accurate than the predictions for Scots pine; RMSE and bias of unit prices were 3.50 € m–3 and 0.58 € m–3 for pine and 2.60 € m–3 and 0.35 € m–3 for spruce.

Detailed pre-harvest information about the volumes and properties of growing stocks is needed for increased precision in wood procurement planning for just-in-time wood deliveries by cut-to-length (CTL) harvesters. In the study, the non-parametric Most Similar Neighbour (MSN) methodology was evaluated for predicting external quality of Scots pine and Norway spruce, expressed as stem sections fulfilling the saw log dimension and quality requirements of Finnish forest industry, as they affect the recovery of timber assortments and the value of a pre-harvest stand. Effects of external tree quality were evaluated using saw log recovery and saw log reduction caused by stem defects, as well as total timber value (€) and average unit value (€ m–3) in a stand. Root mean square error (RMSE) of saw log recovery and reduction were 9.12 percentile points (pp) for Scots pine and 6.38 pp for Norway spruce stands. In the unit value considerations, the predictions compared with measurements resulted in the RMSE of 3.50 € m–3 and the bias of 0.58 € m–3 in Scots pine stands and 2.60 € m–3, and 0.35 € m–3 in Norway spruce stands, respectively. The presented MSN based approach together with the utilization of the external stem quality database included in the ARVO software could provide dimension and external quality predictions usable for pre-harvest assessment of timber stock at a stand level. This prediction methodology is usable especially in analyses where timber assortment recoveries, values and unit prices are compared when different bucking objectives are used.

  • Malinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jukka.malinen@uef.fi (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.kilpelainen@luke.fi
  • Verkasalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: erkki.verkasalo@luke.fi
article id 7763, category Research article
Sergei Senko, Mikko Kurttila, Timo Karjalainen. (2018). Prospects for Nordic intensive forest management solutions in the Republic of Karelia. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 7763. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7763
Highlights: SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) and multi-criteria decision support analysis were combined to examine the potential for Nordic intensive forest management solutions (NIFMS) in Karelia, Russia; NIFMS looks promising for Karelian forestry; Improving quality-and-value of timber and sustained yield are the highly prioritized strengths; Unprepared forestry regulations are the main threat that needs to be taken into account.

In this study, the prospects for future forest management in Republic of Karelia, Russia were analyzed. Forestry has an important role in the economy of Karelia. However, productivity and profitability in the forestry sector are extremely low, forest stand structure and quality are weak, the commercial forest land of coniferous species has declined and the wood processing industry struggles with a deficit of raw materials. The situation is typical to many forest regions in Russia with extensive forest management cited as one reason for the current situation. In contrast, the Nordic countries have significant experience in intensive and sustainable forest management and the results have been to a large extent positive. The transfer of Nordic intensive forest management solutions (NIFMS) could improve forestry in Karelia. SWOT analysis, combined with the multi-criteria decision support (MCDS) method was used to identify local operational environments and to assign priorities. Major threats included unprepared regulations, poor road infrastructure, insecure investments, low forestry productivity, forest degradation, high investment costs and a negative attitude to intensive forestry. The main opportunities are high forest resource potential in Karelia, favorable authority development programs, proven Nordic expertise, wood-based energy development and availability of new technology. Results also showed that the main weaknesses that might influence the NIFMS in Karelia are slow return on investments, low market demand for energy wood, high costs associated with young forest thinnings, high demand for skilled specialists and a lack of investment in research and development.

  • Senko, University of Eastern Finland (UEF), School of Forest Sciences, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80111 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sergei.senko@uef.fi (email)
  • Kurttila, The Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.kurttila@luke.fi
  • Karjalainen, † Deceased ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 9984, category Review article
Christoph Kogler, Peter Rauch. (2018). Discrete event simulation of multimodal and unimodal transportation in the wood supply chain: a literature review. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 9984. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9984
Highlights: Focus on discrete event simulation, wood supply chain and multimodal transport; Analyses of 12 review articles and a core of 32 research papers, complemented by 48 related ones; Research focus from unimodal to multimodal transport to build efficient, resilient, green and socially sustainable supply chains; Development of robust risk management considering supply risks, demand risks and external risks is needed.

This review systematically analyses and classifies research and review papers focusing on discrete event simulation applied to wood transport, and therefore illustrates the development of the research area from 1997 until 2017. Discrete event simulation allows complex supply chain models to be mapped in a straightforward manner to study supply chain dynamics, test alternative strategies, communicate findings and facilitate understanding of various stakeholders. The presented analyses confirm that discrete event simulation is well-suited for analyzing interconnected wood supply chain transportation issues on an operational and tactical level. Transport is the connective link between interrelated system components of the forest products industry. Therefore, a survey on transport logistics allows to analyze the significance of entire supply chain management considerations to improve the overall performance and not only one part in isolation. Thus far, research focuses mainly on biomass, unimodal truck transport and terminal operations. Common shortcomings identified include rough explanations of simulation models and sparse details provided about the verification and validation processes. Research gaps exist concerning simulations of entire, resilient and multimodal wood supply chains as well as supply and demand risks. Further studies should expand upon the few initial attempts to combine various simulation methods with optimization.

  • Kogler, Institute of Production and Logistics, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Feistmantelstrasse 4, A-1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8811-152X E-mail: christoph.kogler@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Rauch, Institute of Production and Logistics, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Feistmantelstrasse 4, A-1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5812-4415 E-mail: peter.rauch@boku.ac.at
article id 7760, category Review article
Maria A. Huka, Manfred Gronalt. (2018). Log yard logistics. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 7760. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7760
Highlights: Characteristics of log yard logistics; Classification into tactical structural and operational problems in the wood industry; Different solution methods such as optimisation, heuristics and simulations and their possible application within the log yard with an overview of existing literature which includes several different case studies with varying emphases, problem analysis and solution methods.

For sawmills, paper mills, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), fiberboard and other wood production factories, the log yard is the first step, where raw materials are sorted and stored before production begins. Due to the size of these production sites great potential exists for the optimisation of internal logistics. In this paper the different planning problems of the log yard are introduced and existing literature examined. Beginning with the tactical problems of structure, such as assessing material flow, planning facility layout and assigning storage areas, it continues with operational problems such as vehicle movement planning within the log yard, empty trip minimisation and the seasonality of raw material availability. Data derived from this study reveals a variety of possible solution methods, the applicability of which depends on the precise nature of the log yard operations. Additionally, several real life examples are provided which illustrate the potential for operational improvement.

  • Huka, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.huka@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Gronalt, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: manfred.gronalt@boku.ac.at

Category: Research note

article id 10009, category Research note
Janis Donis, Mara Kitenberga, Guntars Snepsts, Edgars Dubrovskis, Aris Jansons. (2018). Factors affecting windstorm damage at the stand level in hemiboreal forests in Latvia: case study of 2005 winter storm. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 10009. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10009
Highlights: In hemiboreal forests in Latvia, dominant tree species, admixture of spruce in canopy-layer, mean height, timing of thinnings, upwind forest edges and wind gusts had significant effect on windstorm damage occurrence at stand-level; Stands on peat soils were more damaged than stands on mineral soils; Tree species composition of canopy-layer was not statistically significant in the model.

In managed European hemiboreal forests, windstorms have a notable ecological and socio-economic impact. In this study, stand properties affecting windstorm damage occurrence at the stand-level were assessed using a Generalized Linear Mixed model. After 2005 windstorm, 5959 stands dominated by birch (Betula spp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), with mean height > 10 m were inventoried. Windstorm damage was positively associated with spruce and pine-dominated stands, increasing mean height, fresh forest edges, decreasing time since the last thinning and stronger wind gusts. Tree species composition – mixed or monodominant – was not statistically significant in the model; while, the admixture of spruce in the canopy layer was positively associated with higher windstorm damage. Stands on peat soils were more damaged than stands on mineral soils. Birch stands were more damaged than pine stands. This information could be used in forest management planning, selection of silvicultural treatments to increase forest resilience to natural disturbances.

  • Donis, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: janis.donis@silava.lv (email)
  • Kitenberga, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: mara.kitenberga@gmail.com
  • Snepsts, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: guntars.snepsts@silava.lv
  • Dubrovskis, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela iela 2, Jelgava, Latvia, LV-3001 ORCID ID:E-mail: edgars.dubrovskis@llu.lv
  • Jansons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv

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