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Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 | 2006

Category: Research article

article id 476, category Research article
Ignazio Monteleone, Diana Ferrazzini & Piero Belletti. (2006). Effectiveness of neutral RAPD markers to detect genetic divergence between the subspecies uncinata and mugo of Pinus mugo Turra. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 476. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.476
Fifteen populations of Pinus mugo subsp. mugo (shrub) and Pinus mugo subsp. uncinata (erect), located in the Alps, were investigated through genetic variation scored at 64 polymorphic RAPD loci. In addition, morphological traits of the female cones were analysed. According to AMOVA most of the genetic variation was found within populations (83.39%), and only 1.25% of it between subspecies. Populations differed in terms of their internal genetic variation, with Nei’s gene diversity ranging from 0.227 to 0.397. Morphological data showed differences between subspecies, although none of the populations showed full accordance with expectations. Significant correlation was found between matrices for geographical and morphological distances, while genetic distances were not correlated with any other aspect. The efficacy of morphological and RAPD markers in discriminating between subspecies, and the contribution of the results in relation to the preservation of biodiversity, are discussed.
  • Monteleone, DI.VA.P.R.A., Plant Genetics and Breeding, University of Turin, via Leonardo da Vinci 44, I-10095 Grugliasco, Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ferrazzini, DI.VA.P.R.A., Plant Genetics and Breeding, University of Turin, via Leonardo da Vinci 44, I-10095 Grugliasco, Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Belletti, DI.VA.P.R.A., Plant Genetics and Breeding, University of Turin, via Leonardo da Vinci 44, I-10095 Grugliasco, Italy ORCID ID:E-mail: piero.belletti@unito.it (email)
article id 336, category Research article
Ann Hedlund. (2006). The attractiveness of the work is affected when production of handcrafted log houses moves indoors. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 336. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.336
Viewed from a historical perspective, a shift has occurred within the forestry and wood sector towards indoor work. In Sweden, the production of handcrafted log houses has now also begun to move indoors. With a point of departure in development processes within the log house sector involving working indoors, education, work attractiveness, between 2001–2005, the aim of this study was to compare indoor work with outdoor work, based on log house builders’ experience of working on handcrafted log houses. Methods used in the interactive development project involving apprentices, experienced log house builders and researchers, were participation with continuous documentation of experiences and opinions; questions; interviews; and measurement of the work environment. The Attractive Work Model has been used in order to analyse perceptions and values. The changes, 15 out of 22 areas, were perceived both negatively and positively. Therefore, it can not be said that working on traditional, handcrafted log houses becomes more attractive if it is moved indoors. The majority wanted to work both outdoors and indoors, while most of the others only wanted to work outdoors. The results indicate that there is scope for developing more attractive work indoors by utilising experiences from log house builders and closely related activities such as the forestry and wood sector. Changes made within one area of work attractiveness affect other areas. Further research is needed both with regard to comparisons between indoor and outdoor work and regarding the interaction between the areas that are identified in the Attractive Work Model.
  • Hedlund, Dalarna University, SE-781 88 Borlänge, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ahd@du.se (email)
article id 335, category Research article
Markus Holopainen & Mervi Talvitie. (2006). Effect of data acquisition accuracy on timing of stand harvests and expected net present value. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 335. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.335
Modern remote sensing provides cost-efficient spatial digital data that are more accurate than before. However, the influence of increased accuracy and cost-efficiency on simulations of forest management planning has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of data acquisition accuracy on standwise forest inventory by comparing the accuracy and cost of traditional compartmentwise inventory methods with 2D and 3D measurements of digital aerial photographs and airborne laser scanning. Comparison was based on the expected net present value (NPV), i.e. economic losses that consisted of the inventory costs and incorrect timings of treatments. The reference data, totalling 700 ha, were measured from Central Park in the city of Helsinki, Finland. The data were simulated to final cut with a MOTTI simulator, which is a stand-level analysis tool that can be used to assess the effects of alternative forest management practices on growth and timber yield. The results showed that when inventory costs were not considered there were no significant differences between the expected NPV losses in 3D measurements of digital aerial photographs, laser scanning and the compartmentwise method. When inventory costs were taken into account, the compartmentwise method was still the most efficient inventory method in the study area. Forest inventories, however, are usually directed to larger areas when the costs per hectare of remote-sensing methods decrease. As a result of better accuracies, 3D and compartmentwise methods always produce better results than the 2D method when NPV losses are accounted. Simulations of this type are based on the accuracies and costs of the 3D data available today, assuming that the data can be used in tree-level measurements.
  • Holopainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.holopainen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Talvitie, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 334, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto. (2006). Linear prediction application for modelling the relationships between a large number of stand characteristics of Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 334. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.334
The aim was to produce models for a large number of stand characteristics of Norway spruce dominated stands. A total of 227 national forest inventory based permanent stand plots, dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies), were used in modelling eight stand variables as a function of the stand mean biological age and site characteristics. The basic models were able to characterize the average development of the modelled stand variables, but resulted in a relatively high RMSE. Basal area (G) and stem number (N) were the most inaccurate, having a RMSE of 34–41%, while that of mean diameter and height characteristics varied between 16–20%. The expectations and error variances of the basic models were calibrated with known stand variables using linear prediction theory. The best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) with a single stand variable used for calibration proved to be ineffective for unknown G and N, but relatively effective for the unknown mean characteristics. However, calibration with one sum and one mean characteristic proved to be effective, and additional calibration variables enhanced the precision only marginally. The BLUP method provided a flexible approach when characterizing the relationships between a large number of stand variables, thus enabling multiple use of these models because they were not fixed to a specific inventory system.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jouni.siipilehto@metla.fi (email)
article id 333, category Research article
Lauri Mehtätalo, Matti Maltamo & Annika Kangas. (2006). The use of quantile trees in the prediction of the diameter distribution of a stand. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 333. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.333
This study deals with the prediction of the basal area diameter distribution of a stand without using a complete sample of diameters from the target stand. Traditionally, this problem has been solved by either the parameter recovery method or the parameter prediction method. This study uses the parameter prediction method and the percentile based diameter distribution with a recent development that makes it possible to improve these predictions by using sample order statistics. A sample order statistic is a tree whose diameter and rank at the plot are known, and is referred to in this paper as a quantile tree. This study tested 13 different strategies for selection of the quantile trees from among the trees of horizontal point sample plots, and compared them with respect to RMSE and the bias of four criterion variables in a dataset of 512 stands. The sample minimum was found to be the most promising alternative with respect to RMSE, even though it introduced a rather large amount of bias in the criterion variables. Other good and less biased alternatives are the second and third smallest trees and the tree closest to the plot centre. The use of minimum is recommended for practical inventories because its rank is probably easiest to determine correctly in the field.
  • Mehtätalo, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: lauri.mehtatalo@metla.fi (email)
  • Maltamo, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Resources Management, P.O.Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 332, category Research article
Marc Palahí, Timo Pukkala & Antoni Trasobares. (2006). Calibrating predicted tree diameter distributions in Catalonia, Spain. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 332. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.332
Several probability density functions have been used in describing the diameter distributions of forest stands. In a case where both the stand basal area and number of stems per hectare are assessed, the fitted or predicted distribution is scaled using only one of these variables, with the result that the distribution often gives incorrect values for the other variable. Using a distribution that provides incorrect values for known characteristics means wasting information. Calibrating the distribution so that it is compatible with the additional information on stand characteristics is a way to avoid such wasting. This study examined the effect of calibration on the accuracy of the predicted diameter distributions of the main tree species of Catalonia. The distributions were calibrated with and without considering the prediction errors of the frequencies of diameter classes. When prediction errors were assumed, the calibration was done with and without making allowance for estimation errors in the stand level calibration variables. Calibrated distributions were more accurate than non-calibrated in terms of sums of different powers of diameters. The set of calibration variables that gave the most accurate results included six stand variables: number of trees per hectare, stand basal area, basal-area-weighted mean diameter, non-weighted mean diameter, median diameter, and basal area median diameter. Of the tested three-variable combinations the best was: number of trees per hectare, stand basal area, and basal-area-weighted mean diameter. Means were more useful calibration variables than medians.
  • Palahí, Centre Tecnológic Forestal de Catalunya. Passeig Lluis Companys, 23, 08010, Barcelona, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: marc.palahi@ctfc.es (email)
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Trasobares, Foreco Technologies, Av. Diagonal 416, Estudio 2, Barcelona 08037, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 331, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto. (2006). Height distributions of Scots pine sapling stands affected by retained tree and edge stand competition. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 331. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.331
The paper focused on the height structure of Scots pine saplings affected by (1) retained solitary pine trees or (2) a pine-dominated edge stand. The study material in (1) and (2) consisted of ten separate regeneration areas in southern Finland. In (1) 2-m radius study plots were located at 1, 3, 6 and 10 m distances from 10 systematically selected, solitary retained trees in each stand. In (2) the study plots were systematically located within 20 m from the edge stand. Competition of the individual trees was modelled using ecological field theory. The 24th and 93rd sample percentiles were used for estimating the height distribution using the two-parameter Weibull function. The models incorporated the effect of varying advanced tree competition on the predicted percentiles. Competition free dominant height was used as a driving variable for the developmental phase. Competition resulted in retarded height development within a radius of about 6 m from the retained tree, while it extended up to roughly half of the dominant height of the edge stand. The height distribution without external competition was relatively symmetrical, but increasing competition resulted in a more peaked and skewed distribution. Slight differences were found between northern sunny and southern shaded stand edges, while the least retarded height occurred at the north-western edge receiving morning sunlight. Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests showed acceptable and equal fit for both data sets; 2% and 8% of the distributions did not pass the test at the alpha 0.1 level when the Weibull distribution was estimated with the observed or predicted percentiles, respectively.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jouni.siipilehto@metla.fi (email)
article id 330, category Research article
Benoit Lapointe, Robert Bradley, William Parsons & Suzanne Brais. (2006). Nutrient and light availability to white spruce seedlings in partial and clearcut harvested aspen stands. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 330. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.330
White spruce is a commercially important tree species in Canada’s boreal forest, and studies are underway to determine the best conditions for planting nursery grown seedlings in the field. Here, we studied effects of low thinning (1/3 harvested), shelterwood (2/3 harvested), and clear-cut harvesting on soil chemical properties, on the growth and nutrition of white spruce seedlings, and on diffuse non-intercepted (DIFN) light levels at 75 cm above the soil surface. The study was conducted on a nutrient-rich clayey soil in the Abitibi region of Québec. DIFN light was lowest in non-harvested control plots and increased curvilinearly with basal area removal. Thus, DIFN light in clear-cut plots was more than twice the amount in shelterwood plots. At three years post-planting, significant linear relationships were found between DIFN light and seedling growth parameters, which were significantly higher in clear-cut than in other treatment plots. Harvesting treatments had no significant effects on soil chemical properties or on four indices of mineral N availability. Needle mass increased with harvesting intensity. Mg and K concentrations in current-year needles were lower in clear-cut than in other treatment plots. In previous-year needles, Ca concentration was higher and Mg concentrations lower in clear-cut plots, whereas as K concentration was higher in non-harvested control plots. Nutrient concentrations were nearly all sufficient in all harvesting treatments according to diagnostic norms established for white spruce. Relative nutrient content (mg nutrient needle–1) of current-year late-summer needles increased, whereas relative nutrient concentration (mg nutrient mg–1 needle) varied slightly, with increasing harvesting intensity, indicating that all nutrients were sufficient in all treatments. There were significant linear relationships between seedling growth and needle Ca, Mg and K concentrations. We conclude that light availability, rather than nutrient limitations, is the main determinant of white spruce seedling growth on these fertile soils.
  • Lapointe, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bradley, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.bradley@usherbrooke.ca (email)
  • Parsons, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Brais, UQAT, 445 boulevard Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada J9X 5E4 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 329, category Research article
Vesa Juntunen & Seppo Neuvonen. (2006). Natural regeneration of Scots pine and Norway spruce close to the timberline in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 329. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.329
Two different datasets were analyzed in order to clarify the factors that affect regeneration success of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the climatically extreme areas in northern Finland. First, pine seed maturity and the number of cones in the trees were investigated at five pairs of study sites during the period 1997–2003. Secondly, the rate of seedling establishment and seedling survival of Scots pine and Norway spruce were monitored and compared among three different timberline zones (forest zone, timberline, tree line) in 13 localities during the period 1983–1999. The first study showed that both cone production (bud formation) and seed maturity may be limiting factors for successful reproduction in the climatically marginal habitats. Seed maturity correlated well with the temperature sum of the summer, but variation in the number of cones had a periodic component rather than strictly following the temperature sum of the summer of bud formation. Monitoring surveys since 1983 showed that pine and spruce regenerated more or less regularly in all the zones during 1983–1999. However, seedling mortality of pines was much higher compared to spruce. In general, initially small sized seedlings showed higher mortality compared with larger ones. The results suggest that besides restrictions in reproduction, stand dynamics in the timberline habitats are strongly controlled by seedling mortality due to a variety of causes.
  • Juntunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kolari Research Unit, Muoniontie 21, FI-95900 Kolari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.juntunen@metla.fi (email)
  • Neuvonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 328, category Research article
Pedro J. Aphalo, Markku Lahti, Tarja Lehto, Tapani Repo, Aino Rummukainen, Hannu Mannerkoski & Leena Finér. (2006). Responses of silver birch saplings to low soil temperature. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.328
Two-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula) saplings were grown for a third growing season in controlled-environment rooms (dasotrons) at three soil temperatures (5, 10, and 20 °C). All trees grew the first flush of leaves, but the growth of the second flush was almost completely inhibited at the two lower temperatures. The dry weight of the second-flush leaves was 50 times larger at 20 °C than at 5 and 10 °C, with about 100 times more nitrogen. Root growth was less affected than shoot growth. Chlorophyll content, net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were lower at low soil temperatures. The value of the cytoplasm resistance estimated from the electric impedance spectra was lower at 5 °C than at 10 or 20 °C. Leaf water potential was highest at the lowest soil temperature, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration was only slightly lower in saplings growing in cooler soil. We conclude that the effect of long-term exposure to cold soil on net assimilation and growth was not caused by stomatal closure alone. It is likely to be additionally mediated by the limited nitrogen acquisition at the low soil temperatures, and perhaps additionally by some other factor. As the growth depression of aboveground parts in response to low soil temperature was more significant in silver birch than what has earlier been found in conifers, the relative changes in air and soil temperature may eventually determine whether birch will become more dominant in boreal forests with climate change.
  • Aphalo, University of Helsinki, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lahti, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehto, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tarja.lehto@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Repo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rummukainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mannerkoski, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finér, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 327, category Research article
Gong Zhang, Guang-ming Zeng, Yi-min Jiang, Chun-yan Du, Guo-he Huang, Jia-mei Yao, Mei Zeng, Xi-lin Zhang & Wei Tan. (2006). Seasonal dry deposition and canopy leaching of base cations in a subtropical evergreen mixed forest, China. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 327. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.327
We evaluated the dry deposition and canopy leaching fluxes of base cations in the growing and the dormant seasons using the Na-ratio method based on the 4-year (2000–2003) monitoring data in Shaoshan subtropical evergreen mixed forest, China. The dry deposition of base cations in the growing seasons was lower than that in the dormant seasons, while the canopy leaching of base cations was higher in the growing seasons than that in the dormant seasons. The precipitation quantity and H+ significantly impacted the canopy leaching processes. The annual canopy leaching of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ accounted for 88, 46 and 38% of net throughfall flux, respectively. The canopy retention of proton (H+ and NH4+) is close to the canopy leaching of base cations calibrated by weak acids, indicating that the canopy cations leaching is neutralizing acid precipitation.
  • Zhang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China; Hunan Environmental Protection Bureau, Hunan Province, Changsha, 410076, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zeng, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: zgming@hnu.cn (email)
  • Jiang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China; Hunan Environmental Protection Bureau, Hunan Province, Changsha, 410076, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Du, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yao, Xiangya Hospital, Central-south University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410008, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zeng, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zhang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tan, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 326, category Research article
Xuejiang Zhang, Helena Korpelainen & Chunyang Li. (2006). Microsatellite variation of Quercus aquifolioides populations at varying altitudes in the Wolong Natural Reserve of China. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 326. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.326
Genetic variation and differentiation were investigated among five natural populations of Quercus aquifolioides occurring along an altitudinal gradient that varied from 2000 to 3600 m above sea level in the Wolong Natural Reserve of China, by analyzing variation at six microsatellite loci. The results showed that the populations were characterized by relatively high intra-population variation with the average number of alleles equaling 11.33 per locus and the average expected heterozygosity (HE) being 0.779. The amount of genetic variation varied only little among populations, which suggests that the influence of altitude factors on microsatellite variation is limited. However, there is a significantly positive correlation between altitude and the number of low-frequency alleles (R2 = 0.97, P < 0.01), which indicates that Q. aquifolioides from high altitudes has more unique variation, possibly enabling adaptation to severe conditions. F statistics showed the presence of a slight deficiency of heterozygosity (FIS = 0.136) and a low level of differentiation among populations (FST = 0.066). The result of the cluster analysis demonstrated that the grouping of populations does not correspond to the altitude of the populations. Based on the available data, it is likely that the selective forces related to altitude are not strong enough to significantly differentiate the populations of Q. aquifolioides in terms of microsatellite variation.
  • Zhang, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Korpelainen, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Li, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: licy@cib.ac.cn

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