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Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 | 2004

Category: Research article

article id 430, category Research article
Mårten Hugosson & Fredrik Ingemarson. (2004). Objectives and motivations of small-scale forest owners; theoretical modelling and qualitative assessment. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 430. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.430
Forest management changes with societal change, and it has been debated if economic development in society places material objectives in a less preferable position: it is assumed this is also the case as regards forest management. The aims of this study were to propose a theoretical model for empirical studies of objectives and motivations within this field and to depict motivations and objectives of small-scale forest owners in Sweden. Comparative literature studies were undertaken and qualitative methodology was used for the empirical studies. Firstly, to depict general trends among forest owners, interviews with professional foresters were conducted. Secondly, forest owners throughout Sweden were interviewed to compare the results of the interviews with the professional foresters on the motivations and objectives of small-scale forest owners. Within the literature, there were no consistent views on the subjective grounds for owning and managing small-scale forest estates. The proposed theoretical model originated from the cultural concept. Sets of interpretive and normative qualities were seen as underlying people’s actions, and such sets were related to basic values. The ‘objectives’ were clustered into groups creating four clusters i.e. ‘motivations’. The four motivations depicted were: Conservation; Utilities; Amenities and Economic Efficiency. The empirical results highlighted that the objectives and motivations of forest-owners covered a broad field and a move towards conservation interests was indicated. The theoretical model presented here is suggested a suitable tool for both depicting the motivations and objectives of forest owners and for making future comparisons.
  • Hugosson, Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ingemarson, Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: fredrik.ingemarson@spm.slu.se (email)
article id 429, category Research article
Juho Rantala. (2004). Optimizing the supply chain strategy of a multi-unit Finnish nursery company. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.429
This paper introduces a capacitated mixed integer programming (CMIP) model for solving an integrated production-distribution system design problem (PDSDP) in the seedling supply chain management (SCM) of a multi-unit Finnish nursery company. The model was originally developed from a strategic perspective in which a company desires to evaluate the expansion or closure of its facilities. Nevertheless, the model is also used for solving operational and tactical level problems by applying applicable constraints. The data were collected from the company studied. The results proved that economies of scale could be exploited in seedling production more than the company does today; Compared to the company’s current supply chain strategy with 5 nursery units producing seedlings, when other supply chain strategies were applied the number of nursery units decreased by 2–4 units, and cost savings in the supply chain varied from 11.3% to 21.3%.
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metla.fi (email)
article id 428, category Research article
Jonny Andersson & Lars Eliasson. (2004). Effects of three harvesting work methods on Harwarder productivity in final felling. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 428. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.428
During the last ten years interest in the harwarder has increased, however, studies have concentrated on effects of technical improvements on machine productivity. It has been noted that there is a large potential to increase the productivity through development of suitable work methods. To find efficient work patterns for a harwarder with a turnable loading area, three different harvesting methods were studied in final felling. Three work methods were used. Method 1: the harwarder drove backwards into the stand making a strip road, strip road trees were felled and left on the ground, on the way out of the stand the harwarder cut and processed the trees on both sides of the machine directly into the loading area. Method 2: the harwarder drove forward along the edge of the cut, cutting and processing trees directly into the loading area. Method 3: the harwarder drove forward into the stand and cut and processed strip road trees and trees standing on both sides of the machine directly into the loading area. The most efficient work method was method 2 where the productivity was 13.0 m3 u.b. per E0h (cubic metre under bark per effective hour). The productivities for method 1 and 3 were 12.1 and 11.9 m3 u.b. per E0h, respectively. In addition to work method harwarder productivity was shown to be dependent on load volume, average tree size and hauling distance. The only work elements significantly affected by work methods were processing and movement during processing. The operator had only a few weeks to get used to the machine and even less time to practise on the work methods. Thus, it is probable that the productivity for the studied methods will increase with increasing work experience. Furthermore, as only three work methods were studied, there are still untested work methods. The potential to further improve harwarder work methods is considerable.
  • Andersson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eliasson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.eliasson@ssko.slu.se (email)
article id 427, category Research article
Scott A. Weyenberg, Lee E. Frelich & Peter B. Reich. (2004). Logging versus fire: how does disturbance type influence the abundance of Pinus strobus regeneration? Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 427. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.427
Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) has decreased in abundance over the past century throughout the Great Lakes Region of North America, but the relative constraints placed on recruitment under contrasting disturbance regimes are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent to which white pine could invade areas recently disturbed by fire or logging (within 10–28 years), and assess the relative limitations placed on recruitment by seed supply, microsite habitat, and competition. We compared white pine regeneration on 61 sites disturbed by fire or logging that were adjacent to intact mature stands that provided a seed source. White pine seedling and sapling densities declined with increasing distance from a seed source, and the rate of decrease was determined by the interaction between seed supply and variation in number and quality of safe sites. For a given combination of seed source and site, white pine seedlings were three times more abundant on burned than logged sites. White pine seedlings grew into the sapling size class more often on burned than logged sites due to lower shrub cover on burned sites. At 25 years after disturbance, regeneration densities of white pine sufficient to achieve eventual future dominance occurred up to 80 m and 20 m from the edge of mature white pine stands after fire and logging, respectively. To attain a similar level of white pine stocking after disturbance, three to four times as many patches of mature white pine need to be left after logging than after fire.
  • Weyenberg, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Frelich, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: freli001@umn.edu (email)
  • Reich, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 426, category Research article
Uwe Schmitt, Risto Jalkanen & Dieter Eckstein. (2004). Cambium dynamics of Pinus sylvestris and Betula spp. in the northern boreal forest in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 426. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.426
Wood formation dynamics of pine and birch along a south-north transect in Finnish Lapland were determined by the pinning technique. For all trees at all sites a more or less sigmoid shape of the wood formation intensity is characteristic with a slow beginning, a faster growth in the middle and a decreasing activity towards the end of the vegetation period. Wood formation of pine started at sites 1–3 (southern sites) in the second week of June and at sites 4 and 5 (northern sites) only in the last week of June, whereas wood formation ended within the first half of August. Wood formation of birch started in the second half of June and ended around the beginning of August. First cells were laid down by pine and birch when the temperature sum had reached the level of 85 to 90 degree days and 110 to 120 degree days, respectively. The intensity of wood formation in pine was highest in July, in birch within two weeks in the middle of July. Wood formation in pine lasted for about seven weeks at the southernmost and about six weeks at the northernmost site. In birch, the duration of wood formation was about five weeks at the southernmost site and around three weeks at the other sites.
  • Schmitt, Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, Institute for Wood Biology and Wood Protection, and University of Hamburg, Chair for Wood Biology, Leuschnerstr. 91, P. O. Box 800209, D-21002 Hamburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: u.schmitt@holz.uni-hamburg.de (email)
  • Jalkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eckstein, Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, Institute for Wood Biology and Wood Protection, and University of Hamburg, Chair for Wood Biology, Leuschnerstr. 91, P. O. Box 800209, D-21002 Hamburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 425, category Research article
Petteri Vanninen. (2004). Allocation of above-ground growth in Pinus sylvestris – impacts of tree size and competition. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 425. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.425
The effect of tree age, size and competition on above ground growth allocation was studied with 69 Pinus sylvestris trees. Competition was described by tree-level indicators (needle density, crown ratio and height-diameter ratio). The stem, branch and needle growth were determined by stem and branch radial increments and tree level biomass analysis. Combined growth of compartments was strongly correlated with needle mass. Furthermore, tree age, size and competition indicators affected the allocation of growth among the compartments. The allocation of growth to stem and needle increased with tree age and size while the allocation of growth to branch decreased. The increasing crown ratio increased allocation of growth to branches. The combined growth of the components and separate growth of needles, branches and stem were related to needle mass. However, competition and tree size were significant additional explanatory variables when the stem, branch and needle growth were estimated according to needle mass. The growth efficiency increased with relative tree height and decreased with increasing needle density.
  • Vanninen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology; mailing address: SAIMA – Centre for Environmental Sciences, Linnankatu 11, FIN-57130 Savonlinna, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: petteri.vanninen@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 424, category Research article
Mats Warensjö & Göran Rune. (2004). Stem straightness and compression wood in a 22-year-old stand of container-grown Scots pine trees. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 424. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.424
The distribution of compression wood in relation to eccentric growth and development of stem straightness was studied in a 22-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in central Sweden that was established with container-grown seedlings. Stem straightness was measured on the same 440 trees in 1986 and 1997. The number of stems with straight base sections increased from 60% in 1986 to 89% in 1997. Measurements of 72 sample trees in 2001 showed that 96% of the trees had developed straight stem bases. External geometry data of the logs was obtained with a Rema 3D log scanner. A sub-sample of 16 trees was randomly selected for analysis of compression wood distribution and eccentricity measurements. From each tree, 11 discs were cut at every 60 cm along the stem. All discs, except one, contained compression wood. Compression wood and pith eccentricity was most pronounced near the stem base but not significantly correlated to basal sweep. Severe compression wood content was correlated to pith eccentricity and bow height. In general, correlations were better for the basal sections of the logs. Even though most trees were straight, they contained large amounts of compression wood. It is evident that eccentric growth and compression wood formation play major roles in the development of stem straightness. In several stems, a spiral compression wood distribution pattern was found. Reasons for this are discussed.
  • Warensjö, Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.warensjo@spm.slu.se (email)
  • Rune, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Dalarna University, SE-776 98 Garpenberg, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 423, category Research article
Olle Rosenberg & Staffan Jacobson. (2004). Effects of repeated slash removal in thinned stands on soil chemistry and understorey vegetation. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 423. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.423
The increased interest in harvesting logging residues as a source of bio-energy has led to concerns about the potentially adverse long-term impact of the practice on site productivity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects on soil chemistry (pH, C, N and AL-extractable P, K, Ca and Mg) in three different soil layers (FH, 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm mineral soil) and understorey vegetation after the second removal of logging residues in whole-tree thinned stands. The study was performed at four different sites, established in the period 1984–87, representing a range of different climatic and soil conditions: a very fertile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) site in south-western Sweden and three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sites located in south, south-central and central Sweden. The effects of whole-tree thinning on soil chemistry and understorey vegetation were generally minor and variable. Across all sites the concentrations of Ca and Mg were significantly lower when slash was removed.
  • Rosenberg, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: olle.rosenberg@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Jacobson, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 422, category Research article
Mika Nieminen. (2004). Export of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus following clear-cutting of three Norway spruce forests growing on drained peatlands in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.422
The effect of clear-cutting on the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3–, and P in outflow water from three productive, Norway spruce dominated drained peatlands (RCC, VCC-1, VCC-2) were studied. Changes in runoff and transport loads (concentration x runoff) at two of the catchments during the frost-free period are also presented. Approximately 40% of the area was cut at RCC and VCC-2, and 72% at VCC-1. The volume removed was 250 m3 ha–1 at RCC, 259 m3 ha–1 at VCC-1, and for VCC-2, 317 m3 ha–1. The mean annual increase in outflow concentrations of DOC during the first four years after clear-cutting was 9.0 mg l–1 at RCC, 22.8 mg l–1 at VCC-1 and 8.4 mg l–1 at VCC-2. Corresponding increases in the forms of nitrogen were: 0.23, 0.51 and 0.16 mg DON l–1; 0.06, 0.31 and 0.04 mg NH4+-N l–1; and 0.05, 0.12 and 0.22 mg NO3–-N l–1. Clear-cutting did not significantly (p > 0.05) increase P concentrations. The increase in non-frost season runoff over the first three years after clear-cutting was 107 mm at RCC and 207 mm at VCC-1. The export loads of DOC during the non-frost season increased by 80 kg ha–1 at RCC and by 184 kg ha–1 at VCC-1 over the first three years. Corresponding increases for the other studied solutes were: 1.78 and 3.98 kg DON ha–1; 0.39 and 1.49 kg NH4+-N ha–1; 0.45 and 0.48 kg NO3–-N ha–1, and 0.09 and 0.06 kg P ha–1. The study demonstrated that clear-cutting may significantly increase the export of DOC and different forms of nitrogen from drained productive peatlands while only small increases in phosphorus export may occur.
  • Nieminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mika.nieminen@metla.fi (email)

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