Current issue: 51(2)

Under compilation: 51(3)

Impact factor 1.470
5-year impact factor 1.788
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 | 2003

Category: Research article

article id 516, category Research article
Celeste Lacuna-Richman. (2003). Ethnicity and the utilization of non-wood forest products: findings from three Philippine villages. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.516
The utilization and trade of non-wood forest products in three villages in the Philippines were compared in this study. Two villages were situated close to each other on the Island of Palawan. The Tagbanua, an indigenous people, inhabited one village; migrants from the Visayas Region of the Philippines populated the other. The third village is located on the Island of Leyte, in the Visayas Region, populated by native Visayan settlers. There was no significant difference in the number of NWFPs utilized by the indigenous people and the migrants. However, there was a wide disparity in income between the two groups, with migrants earning more, partly due to the marketing of commercial NWFPs. This gap could be decreased by fairer trading practices that are dependent in part on better educational opportunities, land rights, legal assistance and access to markets for the Tagbanua. Specific socioeconomic characteristics, such as the presence of a hunter within the household and size of the family were found to have a positive correlation with the use of NWFPs in some study villages. Income and the food expenditure of the household were inversely related with the use of NWFPs in the native Visayan village.
  • Lacuna-Richman, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: celeste.lacuna-richman@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
article id 515, category Research article
Juho Rantala, Kari Väätäinen, Nuutti Kiljunen & Pertti Harstela. (2003). Economic evaluation of container seedling packing and disinfection machinery. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.515
Productivity and costs of packing container seedlings were studied in a mechanised line for packing and disinfecting seedling trays. The hypothesis was that adequate cost-efficiency could be achieved when some common principles of mechanisation were applied. Results indicated that the unit costs are lower than those of manual packing, if these principles were applied and the annual number of packed seedlings exceeded 6 million. However, most of the nurseries in Finland are still too small to gain a real advantage from large-scale production.
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metla.fi (email)
  • Väätäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kiljunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 514, category Research article
Jukka Malinen. (2003). Locally adaptable non-parametric methods for estimating stand characteristics for wood procurement planning. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 514. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.514
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the local adaptation of the non-parametric Most Similar Neighbour (MSN) method in estimating stand characteristics for wood procurement planning purposes. Local adaptation was performed in two different ways: 1) by selecting local data from a database with the MSN method and using that data as a database in the basic k-nearest neighbour (k-nn) MSN method, 2) by selecting a combination of neighbours from the neighbourhood where the average of the predictor variables was closest to the target stand predictor variables (Locally Adaptable Neighbourhood (LAN) MSN method). The study data used comprised 209 spruce dominated stands located in central Finland and was collected with harvesters. The accuracy of the methods was analysed by estimating the tree stock characteristics and the log length/diameter distribution produced by a bucking simulation. The local k-nn MSN method was not notably better than the k-nn MSN method, although it produced less biased estimates on the edges of the input space. The LAN MSN method was found to be a more accurate method than the k-nn methods.
  • Malinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jukka.malinen@joensuu.fi (email)
article id 513, category Research article
Marjut Ihalainen, Kauko Salo & Timo Pukkala. (2003). Empirical prediction models for Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea berry yields in North Karelia, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 513. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.513
Forest berries and the outdoor experiences related to berry collection are important goods and services provided by Finnish forests. Consequently, there is a need for models which facilitate the prediction of the impacts of alternative forest management options on berry yields. Very few such models are available. In particular, empirical models are lacking. Models used in forest management should express the effect of variables altered in forest management such as stand density and mean tree size. This study developed empirical models for bilberry and cowberry yields in North Karelia. The data consisted of 362 measurements of 40 m2 sample plots. The plots were located in clusters. The same plot was measured over 1 to 4 years. Besides berry yield some site and growing stock characteristics of each plot were measured. A random parameter model was used to express the berry yield as a function of site fertility, growing stock characteristics, and random parameters. The random part of the models accounted for the effect of plot, measurement year, and cluster. The fixed predictors of the model for bilberry were stand age and forest site type. Stand basal area, mean tree diameter and forest site type were used to predict cowberry yields. The most significant random parameter was the plot factor. The fixed model part explained only a few per cent of the variation in berry yields. The signs of regression coefficients were logical and the model predictions correlated rather well with the predictions of earlier models.
  • Ihalainen, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.ihalainen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Salo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 512, category Research article
Juha-Pekka Hotanen. (2003). Multidimensional site description of peatlands drained for forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 512. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.512
Sites (n = 119) on drained mires located in the southern aapa mire zone in Finland were analysed by multivariate techniques. The compositional trends of the understorey vegetation were analysed by means of hybrid multidimensional scaling (HMDS). In addition to field classification, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and flexible unweighted paired group arithmetic average (FUPGMA) classifications were used. The 1st HMDS dimension primarily reflected variation along a gradient from spruce mire influence to hummock-level bog influence. Variation in nutrient status was also connected to this gradient. Factors underlying the 2nd dimension were variation in nutrient status and drainage succession (moisture). Some sample plots representing herb-rich or Molinia-rich types were separated along the 3rd dimension. The variation in understorey vegetation (i.e. the ordination space) showed high maximum correlation with stand volume r = 0.81, mean annual stand volume increment r = 0.76, and post-drainage dominant height r = 0.75. The covariation between the vegetation and peat bulk density in both the 0–10 and 10–20 cm peat layers was also strong: r = 0.55 and r = 0.80. The correlations for Hv.Post were 0.64 and 0.81, respectively. Of the total macronutrient concentrations, phosphorus (r = 0.73, r = 0.75) and nitrogen (r = 0.59, r = 0.64) were the most strongly correlated with species composition. The environmental sample variables were also presented by the vegetation units of numerical classification. Most of the recorded variables, including nutrient amounts (kg ha–1), were examined in site quality (fertility) classes by succession phases as well. Border variants or transitional forms of the site types were common. Additional vegetation criteria (e.g. surface-water influence) more closely defined the ecology of the site. In addition to the site quality classes, a considerable amount of information about the tree stands, vegetation diversity and peat properties was associated with the separation of the succession phases, i.e. in this study transforming (phase II) vs. transformed (final phase III) sites. In conclusion, the actual vegetation appeared to well reflect various aspects of the ecological conditions, even in labile communities of commercial forests on drained peatlands.
  • Hotanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O.Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha-pekka.hotanen@metla.fi (email)
article id 511, category Research article
Luis Diego Pérez Cordero & Markku Kanninen. (2003). Heartwood, sapwood and bark content, and wood dry density of young and mature teak (Tectona grandis) trees grown in Costa Rica. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 511. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.511
The aim of this study was to evaluate the heartwood, sapwood and bark content, and wood dry density in young and mature teak (Tectona grandis) trees. For this, 17 plantations were selected from 11 sites representing different climatic conditions and plantation densities (156 to 1600 trees ha–1, and line planting). From these plantations, a total of 87 trees with ages between 5 and 47 years were felled for stem analysis. The highest heartwood proportion of stem volume (over bark) was 61% and the lowest 0.4%. The sapwood proportion ranged between 24 and 72%, while bark represented from 14 to 37% of the total volume. Heartwood proportion was significantly different (P < 0.05) among climatic zones: ‘wet’ sites producing less heartwood than ‘dry’ sites. Stem diameter (under bark) and heartwood diameter at different stem heights differed among sample trees, even when plotted in relative values to avoid dependency with stem size. Dry density was statistically different between 8-year-old trees or younger and 47-year-old trees, and between line planting trees and 13-year-old trees or younger, but did not differ statistically between line planting trees and mature trees. No significant differences were found between climatic zones or between different stand densities. Dry density values for T. grandis plantations in Costa Rica are similar to those reported elsewhere.
  • Pérez Cordero, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica ORCID ID:E-mail: diegoperez@costarricense.cr (email)
  • Kanninen, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 510, category Research article
Helge Dzierzon, Risto Sievänen, Winfried Kurth, Jari Perttunen & Branislav Sloboda. (2003). Enhanced possibilities for analyzing tree structure as provided by an interface between different modelling systems. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 510. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.510
In recent years, many different advanced mathematical models and simulation systems for tree and forest growth have been developed. We show a possibility to extend analysis tools for measured and simulated plants using a data interface between the simulation model LIGNUM and the multifunctional software system GROGRA. Both systems were developed by different teams. To demonstrate the enhanced possibilities for analyzing a LIGNUM tree, several examples are given. In these examples three different approaches for analysis are applied to measured and simulated trees: Fractal dimension, deduction of tapering laws, and water potential patterns obtained from simulation of waterflow by the specialized software HYDRA. Conclusions for the interfacing and comparison of different modelling tools are drawn.
  • Dzierzon, Institut für Forstliche Biometrie und Informatik, Universität Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: hdzierz@gwdg.de (email)
  • Sievänen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kurth, Institut für Informatik, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus, P.O. Box 101344, D-03013 Cottbus, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Perttunen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sloboda, Institut für Forstliche Biometrie und Informatik, Universität Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 509, category Research article
Michelle de Chantal, Laura Eskola, Hannu Ilvesniemi, Kari Leinonen & Carl Johan Westman. (2003). Early establishment of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies sown on soil freshly prepared and after stabilisation. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 509. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.509
The aim of this study is to investigate the early establishment of Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) seedlings on soil freshly prepared and soil left to stabilise for one year after preparation. Three site preparation treatments were studied: exposed C horizon, mound (broken O/E/B horizon piled upside down over undisturbed forest floor), and exposed E/B horizon. The years investigated were different in terms of weather, one being rainy and the other one dry. As such, emergence was very low in the dry year. Content of fine silt particles, bulk density, water retention, air-filled porosity, loss-on-ignition, and near saturated hydraulic conductivity did not differ statistically between fresh and stabilised soil. Nevertheless, early establishment of P. sylvestris seedlings was improved on exposed C and E/B horizon after one year of soil stabilisation. In contrast, early establishment of P. sylvestris on mounds, and that of P. abies on all types of site preparation treatments were not improved by soil stabilisation. In addition, mortality due to frost heaving did not differ significantly between freshly prepared and stabilised soil. Considering the fact that growing season climate had a great influence on the sowing outcome, and that early establishment is also affected by other factors that vary yearly, such as predation, seedbed receptivity, and competition from vegetation, it may not be advantageous to wait for soil to stabilise before regenerating from seeds.
  • Chantal, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: michelle.dechantal@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Eskola, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvesniemi, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leinonen, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 508, category Research article
Kai Vellak, Jaanus Paal & Jaan Liira. (2003). Diversity and distribution pattern of bryophytes and vascular plants in a boreal spruce forest. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 508. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.508
Small scale pattern of bryophyte communities is one of the remarkable sources of diversity in species-poor boreal forests. By means of correlation and general linear model approaches, the relationships between bryophyte vegetation and upper layers, as well as the response of ground and field layer species to several environmental factors, was analyzed in a boreal spruce forest in South-East Estonia. Of the studied factors, the strongest influence on the diversity and spatial distribution of ground and field layer species was found for ‘distance from nearest tree’. Species from different layers react differently to the proximity of trees. Species richness of bryophytes is higher further from trees, whereas more vascular plant species prefer to grow in the vicinity of tree trunks. For bryophyte species richness, the pH of the decay horizon is also important; fewer bryophyte species occur in more acid conditions.
  • Vellak, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, 181 Riia str., 51014 Tartu, Estonia; Institute of Botany and Ecology, University of Tartu, 40 Lai Str., 51005 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: kvellak@zbi.ee (email)
  • Paal, Institute of Botany and Ecology, University of Tartu, 40 Lai Str., 51005 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Liira, Institute of Botany and Ecology, University of Tartu, 40 Lai Str., 51005 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 517, category Research note
Matti Huotari, Mareena Jaskari, Erkki Annila & Vilho Lantto. (2003). Responses of olfactory receptor neurons of the large pine weevil to a possible deterrent Neutroil® and two other chemicals. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.517
Electrophysiological responses of olfactory receptor neurons were measured from the antennal sensilla of large pine weevils (Hylobius abietis L.) at 1 s exposure to Neutroil®-hexane mixture odour as a possible deterrent chemical and, for comparison, to α-pinene, α-pinene-ethanol mixture, and ethanol odours, respectively. Neutroil® is a commercial chemical pulp-mill product which has been studied earlier as a deterrent for large pine weevils with preliminary feed tests. In addition, ethanol, hexane and clean carrier air responses were measured. Odour pulses and clean air, as a zero reference value, were directed at a fixed insect antenna in order to induce olfactory responses. Simultaneous olfactory responses, i.e. Hylobius electroantennograms (EAG) and action potential responses, were recorded and these responses of Hylobius olfactory receptor neurons (ORN), such as action potential rates, silent periods and EAG responses, were analyzed for all simultaneous recordings. The exposures to α-pinene, α-pinene-ethanol mixture, pure ethanol and hexane caused an increase of the action potential rate (up to 70 pulses per second) in the ORNs sensitive to these odours, while the Neutroil®-hexane mixture exposures caused either silent periods with a duration between 0.6 and 1.1 s for 1 s exposure pulses or they had no response at all in the ORNs sensitive to the other odours. Thus, the possible deterrence may be caused by inhibition of some pinene-alcohol ORNs.
  • Huotari, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.huotari@oulu.fi (email)
  • Jaskari, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Annila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lantto, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content

Your selected articles