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Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 | 2001

Category: Research article

article id 590, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Eino Mälkönen, Sirpa Piirainen. (2001). Effects of wood ash fertilization on forest soil chemical properties. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 590. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.590
The effects of wood ash fertilization on soil chemical properties were studied in three young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations and a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) plantation with different site fertility in southern Finland. The dose of 3 t ha–1 of loose wood ash was applied to 4 replicate plots (25 x 25 m) at each experiment. Humus layer and mineral soil samples were taken before the treatment and 7 and 16 years after wood ash application. Results showed that neutralization as well as fertilization effects of wood ash on forest soil were of long duration. An ash-induced pH increase of 0.6–1.0 pH units and exchangeable acidity (EA) decrease of 58–83% were detected in the humus layer 16 years after wood ash application. The decrease in acidity was most pronounced on the Calluna site with initially the lowest pH and highest EA. In the mineral soil the increase in pH was observed later than in the humus layer. After 16 years, the mineral soil pH was increased (0.2–0.3 pH units) on the Vaccinium and Myrtillus sites. A corresponding and in most cases a significant increase in the extractable Ca and Mg concentrations was detected in both the humus layer and in the mineral soil. Wood ash significantly increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CECe) and base saturation (BS) but decreased the concentration of exchangeable Al in both soil layers on all the sites. No response of N availability to wood ash application could be found.
  • Saarsalmi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.saarsalmi@metla.fi (email)
  • Mälkönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Piirainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 589, category Research article
Pekka Mäkinen. (2001). Competitive strategies applied by Finnish timber carriers following deregulation. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 589. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.589
The present study examines the success of timber carriers and the factors involved in their success immediately following deregulation. In Finland in 1991 the timber trucking sector was deregulated. Means testing was changed to suitability testing, which meant that the Ministry of Transport and Communications, provincial authorities and the trucking association could no longer regulate the entry of new entrepreneurs to the sector. The present research material contains two successful enterprise groups. In the strategically more successful group, good results were obtained with a moderate labour input by the entrepreneurs. The strategic position of this group was considered to be successful because the operating hours of the trucks were fairly high but the work loads imposed on the entrepreneur remained reasonable. The profitability of these enterprises was so good that it was possible to use hired labour to drive the trucks. The work load of close to half of the unsuccessful entrepreneurs had been large or extremely large. In some cases, the obvious reason for failure was their inadequate transportation rates. Others had seemingly satisfactory haulage rates when compared to the average, but still their enterprises performed poorly. In these cases, the explanation lay in the inefficiency of operations or excessive debts, the latter caused, for example, by earlier operations. The results of this study do not support the view that a lot of hard work generally means success in entrepreneurship. The results support the view that both entrepreneurs’ work and management inputs have a significant impact on the success of the enterprise, and that high tariffs alone are not a guarantee of success.
  • Mäkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.makinen@metla.fi (email)
article id 588, category Research article
Marjut Ihalainen, Timo Pukkala. (2001). Modelling cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) yields from mineral soils and peatlands on the basis of visual field estimates. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 588. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.588
This study presents new models for predicting bilberry and cowberry yields from site and stand characteristics. These models enable one to evaluate the future states of forests in terms of berry yields. The modelling data consisted of visual field estimates of site and tree stand characteristics, as well as berry yields from 627 forest stands. Berry yields were estimated using a scale from 0 to 10. Using these data, models were prepared which predict the berry yield scores from those site and stand characteristics which are usually known in forest planning calculations. The model predictions correlated positively and often quite strongly with earlier models. The results were in line with previous studies on the effects of site and tree cover on berry production. According to the models, sites of medium and rather poor fertility produce the highest bilberry yields. Increasing tree height increases, and the basal area of spruce and proportion of deciduous trees decrease, bilberry yield. With mineral soils, cowberry yields are best on poor sites. A high proportion of pine improves cowberry yields. The yields are the highest in open areas and very young stands, on the one hand, and in sparsely populated stands of large and old trees, on the other hand. In pine swamps, the yields are best on rather poor sites. Increasing basal area of deciduous trees decreases cowberry yields.
  • Ihalainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.ihalainen@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 587, category Research article
Erkki Tomppo, Kari T. Korhonen, Juha Heikkinen, Hannu Yli-Kojola. (2001). Multi-source inventory of the forests of the Hebei Forestry Bureau, Heilongjiang, China. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 587. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.587
A multi-source forest inventory method is applied to the estimation of forest resources in the area of the Hebei Forest Bureau in Heilongjiang province in North-East China. A stratified systematic cluster sampling design was utilised in field measurements. The design was constructed on the basis of information from earlier stand-level inventories, aerial orthophotographs, experiences from other sampling inventories and the available budget. Sample tree volumes were estimated by means of existing models. New models were constructed and their parameters estimated for tallied tree volumes and volume increments. The estimates for the area of the Bureau were computed from field measurements, and for the areas of the forest farms estimated from field measurements and satellite images. A k-nearest neighbour method was utilised. This method employing satellite image data makes it possible to estimate all variables, particularly for smaller areas than that possible using field measurements only. The methods presented, or their modifications, could also be applied to the planning and realisation of forest inventories elsewhere in Temperate or Boreal zones. The inventory in question gave an estimate of 114 m3/ha (the multi-source inventory 119 m3/ha) instead of 72 m3/ha as previously estimated from available information. Totally nineteen tree species, genera of species or tree species groups were identified (Appendix 1). The forests were relatively young, 60% of them younger than 40 years and 85% younger than 60 years.
  • Tomppo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: erkki.tomppo@metla.fi (email)
  • Korhonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Kojola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 586, category Research article
Tuula Nuutinen, Seppo Kellomäki. (2001). A comparison of three modelling approaches for large-scale forest scenario analysis in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 586. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.586
Forests play an important role in the sequestration of carbon dioxide and the storage of carbon. The potential and efficiency of mitigation options in forestry have been studied using large-scale forestry scenario models. In Finland, three models have been applied in attempts to estimate timber production and related carbon budgets. In this study, these models are compared. The oldest, MELA, was designed in the 1970s for the regional and national analysis of timber production. The European Forest Information Scenario Model, EFISCEN, originally a Swedish area matrix model, was developed in the early 1980s. SIMA, a gap-type ecosystem model, was utilised in the 1990s for regional predictions on how the changing climate may affect forest growth and timber yield in Finland. In EFISCEN, only the development of growing stock is endogeneous because the assumptions on growth, and the removal and rules for felling are given exogeneously. In the SIMA model, the rules for felling are exogeneous but the growth is modelled based on individual trees reacting to their environment. In the MELA model, the management of forests is endogeneous, i.e. the growth, felling regimes and the development of growing stock are the results of the analysis. The MELA approach integrated with a process-based ecosystem model seems most applicable in the analyses of effective mitigation measures compatible with sustainable forestry under a changing climate. When using the scenarios for the estimation of carbon budget, the policy makers should check that the analyses cover the whole area of interest, and that the assumptions on growth and management together with the definitions applied correspond with the forestry conditions in question.
  • Nuutinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.nuutinen@metla.fi (email)
  • Kellomäki, University of Joensuu, Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 585, category Research article
Meinrad Rohner, Klaus Böswald. (2001). Forestry development scenarios: timber production, carbon dynamics in tree biomass and forest values in Germany. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 585. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.585
The dynamics of the age class structure stands at the center of modeling long-run forestry scenarios. This insight has been applied to the construction of the Forest Development and Carbon Budget Simulation Model (ForCaBSiM), a model which is used for the study of several interrelated questions: the development of timber stocks and the potential level of sustainable harvests, the stocks and fluxes of tree carbon in managed forests, the economy-wide effects of management practices on the value of forest lands and timber stocks. The combined study of these issues allows to assess development scenarios with regard to the productive potential of forestry, the carbon cycle, and forest values. At present, the model is adapted to German data, but it is designed for use with other data sets as well. This paper provides a description of core mechanisms in ForCaBSiM. On this background, the choice and impact of crucial assumptions is examined. Illustrative results are used to demonstrate the use of the model. The paper focuses on the impact of varying rotation ages and the tree species composition. Particular attention is given to the concept of steady states.
  • Rohner, Renewable Resource Modeling, D-63477 Maintal, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: rohner@rrmodeling.de (email)
  • Böswald, Factor Consulting + Management AG, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 584, category Research article
Ralph Alig, Darius Adams, John Mills, Richard Haynes, Peter Ince, Robert Moulton. (2001). Alternative projections of the impacts of private investment on southern forests: a comparison of two large-scale forest sector models of the United States. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 584. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.584
The TAMM/NAPAP/ATLAS/AREACHANGE (TNAA) system and the Forest and Agriculture Sector Optimization Model (FASOM) are two large-scale forestry sector modeling systems that have been employed to analyze the U.S. forest resource situation. The TNAA system of static, spatial equilibrium models has been applied to make 50-year projections of the U.S. forest sector for more than 20 years. Much of its input on forest management behavior and decisions about use of forestland derives from expert-based systems external to the TNAA system. FASOM, a spatial intertemporal optimization model, directly incorporates decisions on management investment and land use options relative to agricultural alternatives as endogenous model elements. The paper contrasts projections of private forest investment from the TNAA and FASOM models, focusing on the southern United States. Comparison of the TNAA base case and an investment-restricted scenario from FASOM, both of which reflect a continuation of recent behavioral tendencies by nonindustrial private owners, suggests that Southern private timberlands have considerable biological and economic potential for intensified forest management. Unrestricted FASOM projections confirm that added investment could lead to substantially larger timber harvest volumes and lower prices than those projected in the base/restricted cases. But even under the more intensive investment scenarios, naturally regenerated forests would cover three-quarters of the future private timberland base and hardwoods would continue to dominate the inventory structure.
  • Alig, USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: ralig@fs.fed.us (email)
  • Adams, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mills, USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab, 1221 SW Yamhill, Portland, Oregon 97205, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haynes, USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab, 1221 SW Yamhill, Portland, Oregon 97205, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ince, USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Lab, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Moulton, USDA Forest Service (retired), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 583, category Research article
Hans Fredrik Hoen, Tron Eid, Petter Økseter. (2001). Timber production possibilities and capital yields from the Norwegian forest area. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 583. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.583
How intensely should a forest be grown? This is a fundamental question in the process of formulating policy guidelines for the management of a forest area, both at the individual property level as well as at the national level. The question is related to a number of factors; the objective(s) of the forest owner, the productivity of the forestland, the initial growing stock, the accessibility within the forest, assumptions regarding future prices and costs and the required real rate of return. This paper presents an applied analysis with the objective of mapping possible future paths for the growing stock on, and timber harvest from the productive forest area in Norway. The analysis is deterministic. The regeneration strategy is a key factor for the long run development of a forest and is thus given particular attention. The analysis is restricted to deal with timber production only and maximisation of the net present value of the forest area is used as the objective function. The required real rate of return is varied and used as the driving force to find the best (optimal) level of intensity in silvicultural management and thus optimal paths for harvesting and growing stocks.
  • Hoen, Agricultural University of Norway, Dept. of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 5044, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: hans.hoen@isf.nlh.no (email)
  • Eid, Agricultural University of Norway, Dept. of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 5044, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Økseter, Agricultural University of Norway, Dept. of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 5044, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail:

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