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Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 | 2001

Category: Research article

article id 582, category Research article
Kari Kangas & Pasi Markkanen. (2001). Factors affecting participation in wild berry picking by rural and urban dwellers. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 582. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.582
The purpose of this study was to examine the participation of urban and rural dwellers in the activity of berry-picking. The respondents in the study lived in the city of Joensuu and in the municipality of Ilomantsi, in eastern Finland. 68% of Joensuu households compared with 82% of those in Ilomantsi participated in berry-picking. These evident differences in the participation rates may be largely due to the higher costs incurred by urban dwellers in picking, since the probability of participation was not significantly higher for Ilomantsi households compared with those in Joensuu who had access to a summer-cottage which was likely to be located near the berry resources. In both municipalities, the participants were divided into two groups according to the nature of their participation in the activity. The larger group – termed ordinary pickers – were characteristically younger families with children, while the other group, termed active pickers, were distinctly more advanced in age. The quantities picked for home consumption by the groups of pickers in Ilomantsi were twice as large as those picked by the corresponding groups in Joensuu. In Joensuu, households were not significantly involved in commercial picking.
  • Kangas, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.kangas@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Markkanen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 581, category Research article
Henrik Heräjärvi. (2001). Technical properties of mature birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens) for saw milling in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.581
The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in selected technical properties of mature (age > 60 years) birch stems in southern and central Finland. Technical properties were defined as the natural external characteristics that cause differences in the usability of a certain section of stem in the mechanical wood industry, saw milling in particular. On mineral soils, birch stems in mixed stands were slightly larger than those in pure birch stands. On peatlands, however, birch stems in pure stands were larger than those in mixed stands. The average stem form of silver birch was straighter than that of white birch. Small-sized log sections of white birch, as well as those of codominant silver birch, typically contain many dead knots. On mineral soils, coniferous admixture had a positive effect on self-pruning of white birch. Self-pruning of silver birch was as good in pure birch stands as in mixed stands of spruce and birch. Occurrence of decay did not differ significantly between the two birch species. Not only silver birch, due to the growth and yield of the stand, but also vigorous and good-quality white birch, because of the possibility to provide high-quality logs, can be maintained profitably as an admixture in coniferous forests until final cutting.
  • Heräjärvi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
article id 580, category Research article
Susanna Sironen, Annika Kangas, Matti Maltamo & Jyrki Kangas. (2001). Estimating individual tree growth with the k-nearest neighbour and k-Most Similar Neighbour methods. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.580
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of non-parametric methods in estimating tree level growth models. In non-parametric methods the growth of a tree is predicted as a weighted average of the values of neighbouring observations. The selection of the nearest neighbours is based on the differences between tree and stand level characteristics of the target tree and the neighbours. The data for the models were collected from the areas owned by Kuusamo Common Forest in Northeast Finland. The whole data consisted of 4051 tally trees and 1308 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 367 Norway spruces (Picea abies Karst.). Models for 5-year diameter growth and bark thickness at the end of the growing period were constructed with two different non-parametric methods: the k-nearest neighbour regression and k-Most Similar Neighbour method. Diameter at breast height, tree height, mean age of the stand and basal area of the trees larger than the subject tree were found to predict the diameter growth most accurately. The non-parametric methods were compared to traditional regression growth models and were found to be quite competitive and reliable growth estimators.
  • Sironen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: susanna.sironen@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Maltamo, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 579, category Research article
Matti Maltamo & Kalle Eerikäinen. (2001). The Most Similar Neighbour reference in the yield prediction of Pinus kesiya stands in Zambia. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.579
The aim of the study was to develop a yield prediction model using the non-parametric Most Similar Neighbour (MSN) reference method. The model is constructed on stand level but it contains information also on tree level. A 10-year projection period was used for the analysis of stand growth. First, the canonical correlation matrix was calculated for the whole study material using stand volumes at the beginning and at the end of the growth period as independent variables and stand characteristics as dependent variable. Secondly, similar neighbour estimates were searched from the data categories reclassified according to thinnings. Due to this, it was possible to search for growth and yield series which is as accurate as possible both at the beginning and at the end of the growth period. The reliability of the MSN volume predictions was compared to the volumes predicted with the simultaneous yield model. The MSN approach was observed to be more reliable volume predictor than the traditional stand level yield prediction model both in thinned and unthinned stands.
  • Maltamo, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.maltamo@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
  • Eerikäinen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 578, category Research article
Kevin Boston & Pete Bettinger. (2001). Development of spatially feasible forest plans: a comparison of two modeling approaches. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 578. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.578
Spatial goals are becoming more frequent aspects of forest management plans as regulatory and organizational policies change in response to fisheries and wildlife concerns. The combination of green-up constraints (harvesting restrictions that prevent the cutting of adjacent units for a specified period of time) and habitat requirements for red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) in the southeastern U.S. suggests that spatially feasible forest plans be developed to guide management activities. We examined two modeling approaches aimed at developing management plans that had both harvest volume goals, RCW habitat, and green-up constraints. The first was a two-stage method that in one stage used linear programming to assign volume goals, and in a second stage used a tabu search – genetic algorithm heuristic technique to minimize the deviations from the volume goals while maximizing the present net revenue and addressing the RCW and green-up constraints. The second approach was a one-stage procedure where the entire management plan was developed with the tabu search – genetic algorithm heuristic technique, thus it did not use the guidance for timber volume levels provided by the LP solution. The goal was to test two modeling approaches to solving a realistic spatial harvest scheduling problem. One is where to volume goals are calculated prior to developing the spatially feasible forest plan, while the other approach simultaneously addresses the volume goals while developing the spatially feasible forest plan. The resulting forest plan from the two-stage approach was superior to that produced from the one-stage approach in terms of net present value. The main point from this analysis is that heuristic techniques may benefit from guidance provided by relaxed LP solutions in their effort to develop efficient forest management plans, particularly when both commodity production and complex spatial wildlife habitat goals are considered. Differences in the production of forest products were apparent between the two modeling approaches, which could have a significant effect on the selection of wood processing equipment and facilities.
  • Boston, Forest Fibre Solutions, Carter Holt Harvey, Tokoroa, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: kevin.boston@chh.co.nz (email)
  • Bettinger, Department of Forest Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 577, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto. (2001). Effect of weed control with fibre mulches and herbicides on the initial development of spruce, birch and aspen seedlings on abandoned farmland. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 577. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.577
Post-planting weed control methods on abandoned farmland were studied in three field trials in southern Finland using a completely randomized design with four treatments and 30 to 40 replications. Mulches of 60 x 60 cm [sheet mulch – strips of plane waste and plastic fibre, newspaper – waste paper slurry, wood chips, pure wood fibre slurry], herbicides [i.e. glyphosate or terbuthylazine alone or mixed and dichlobenile applied to 1 m2 spots] and hoeing treatments were compared to an untreated control plot. The study material consisted of two-year-old containerized aspen (Populus tremula L.), silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings planted in spring 1996. The ground vegetation was dominated by Elymys repens, Deschampsia cespitosa, Cirsium arvense and Epilobium angustifolium. Monitoring of the trials over a 3-year period showed a moderate effect of weed control, which varied according to the method used and by the crop species. Significant growth responses were found with herbicide in spruce, wood chips in spruce and birch and with sheet mulch in aspen seedlings. Sheet mulch also encouraged vole nesting thus increasing damages. Generally, slurry mulches proved to be insufficiently durable. Mulching had a clear insulating effect, which may increase the risk of winter drought.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jouni.siipilehto@metla.fi (email)
article id 576, category Research article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio & Pirkko Velling. (2001). Micropropagated silver birches (Betula pendula) in the field – performance and clonal differences. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 576. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.576
Micropropagated and seed-born silver birches (Betula pendula Roth) were compared for survival, height growth and occurrence of biotic damage (voles, hares, mooses, stem lesions and cankers) in field trials in southern Finland. The material consisted of 11 clones and 10 different lots of seedlings growing in 10 field trials, established in clear-cut forest cultivation areas. The plants were 6–7 years old. The micropropagated and seed-born material types did not significantly differ from each other as regards survival, height growth and frequencies of damage caused by biotic agents. Large and significant differences were, however, detected in survival, height and frequencies of all types of biotic damage between single clones. Careful selection and testing of birch clones in field conditions is recommended before wide-scale commercial micropropagation and practical forest cultivation takes place.
  • Viherä-Aarnio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box. 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anneli.vihera-aarnio@metla.fi (email)
  • Velling, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box. 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 575, category Research article
Sylvie Mussche, Roeland Samson, Lieven Nachtergale, An De Schrijver, Raoul Lemeur & Noël Lust. (2001). A comparison of optical and direct methods for monitoring the seasonal dynamics of leaf area index in deciduous forests. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 575. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.575
During the 1996 growing season the seasonal dynamics of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) were determined by 3 different methods in two forest types: a mixed oak (Quercus robur L.) – beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand and an ash dominated (Fraxinus excelsior L.) stand. The results obtained from the two indirect methods, i.e. hemispherical photography and LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser (Li-COR), were compared with the results of the direct measurement of litter fall collected in litter trap systems. In this study the direct method is considered to be the reference, giving the most accurate LAI-values. Both the hemispherical photography and the LAI-2000 PCA introduced an underestimation of LAI when the actual canopy leaf distribution in the crown layer deviates from a random distribution of leaf area in space as is found in the mixed oak/beech stand. However, when the condition of random leaf distribution is nearly fulfilled (ash stand), the LAI-2000 PCA gave LAI-values which were close to the results obtained from the direct method. Regression curves with R2 > 0.93 could be calculated for both indirect methods.
  • Mussche, Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Samson, Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nachtergale, Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • De Schrijver, Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail: An.Deschrijver@rug.ac.be (email)
  • Lemeur, Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lust, Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 574, category Research article
Hans W. Linderholm. (2001). Climatic influence on Scots pine growth on dry and wet soils in the central Scandinavian mountains, interpreted from tree-ring width. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 574. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.574
Tree rings are one of the most important proxy data sources for reconstructing past climate variability. In order to understand climate variability, it is necessary to get a spatial and temporal coverage of climate information. Summer temperatures mainly influence tree growth at the altitudinal tree line, while at lower altitudes additional factors affect growth. In addition, the nature of soil where trees grow may affect growth response to climate. To decide climate as well as growth-substrate influences on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing below the tree line, two tree-ring width chronologies, sampled at dry mineral soil and wet peat soil in a mountain valley in the central Scandinavian Mountains, were analysed for climate responses and spectral signals. Temperatures during growth season (May–August) showed the strongest influence on tree growth at both sites. Influence of precipitation in the growing season was low, indicating sufficient amounts of available water during growth. However, at the dry-soil site the influence of late winter/early spring precipitation was significant. Strength of the climate–tree–growth relationship at the dry site was similar to that of trees growing at the present tree line, while weaker at the wet site. Both site chronologies exhibited common spectral peaks at c. 3.5 and 13 years indicating a common growth forcing at those time scales. The wet-site chronology displayed low-frequency variations with a 19-year periodicity, where growth peaks coincided with the lunar tidal maxima indicating a possible influence of lunar forcing. At the dry-site, multi-decadal fluctuations displayed a periodicity of 66 years. Both 13- and 66-year periods can be linked to variations in sea surface temperatures of the North Atlantic Ocean, pointing to a maritime influence, on decadal scales, of pine growth in the area. These results suggest that Scots pine in this environment may be regarded as proxies of North Atlantic Ocean coupled climatic variability.
  • Linderholm, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hasse@natgeo.su.se (email)

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