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Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 | 1999

Category: Research article

article id 665, category Research article
Kari Kangas. (1999). Trade of main wild berries in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.665
The price trends and markets of the main wild berries, bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), were analysed in this study, which covered both domestic use of berries, imports and exports. The periods considered were for bilberries from 1988 to 1997 and for lingonberries from 1979 to 1994. The results indicated that both exports and imports have increased and domestic berries have lost their market share to imports in domestic use. One possible explanation for this trend was found in price development. Both export and import prices have decreased, but export price has still been higher than the import price. Simultaneously the domestic price has decreased the fastest. The formation of the price of lingonberries paid to the pickers in the organised domestic markets was studied with a regression model. The results indicated that domestic price was negatively dependent on the amounts of lingonberries demanded in the domestic markets and positively dependent on the export price. Correlation analysis gave evidence on the same kind of relations concerning bilberries.
  • Kangas, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.kangas@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
article id 664, category Research article
Anssi Niskanen. (1999). The financial and economic profitability of field afforestation in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 664. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.664
The aim of the study was to assess the rate of return on invested capital and soil expectation value in field afforestation from the financial (business economic) and economic (national economic) point of views in Finland using 1996 cost and price data. Risks for renewal planting and negative growth impacts of reduction in plantation density were explicitly included in the profitability assessments. Results indicated that due to the subsidies and favorable regulations for obtaining them in 1996, field afforestation was financially profitable for farmers regardless of what species was used for planting. From the national economic point of view, investments in field afforestation provided only substantial return on invested capital, being highest after risk adjustments in Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations.
  • Niskanen, European Forest Institute, Torikatu 34, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.niskanen@efi.fi (email)
article id 663, category Research article
Lennart Moberg. (1999). Variation in knot size of Pinus sylvestris in two initial spacing trials. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 663. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.663
The objective of this study was to investigate the variation in internal knot size of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems sampled from mature permanent plots, and for which the silvicultural history was known. It was based on a sample of mature trees removed from two different spacing trials representing a moderate and high site index. Knot size was measured with non-destructive methods using a CT-scanner and digital image analysis. Initial spacing varied between 0.75 and 3 m on the high site-index trial and between 1.5 and 2.5 m on the moderate site-index trial. Wider initial spacing on the high site index resulted in larger knots near the base of the stem. However, due to successive thinnings which gradually equalised stand density among plots, the difference between most plots was less further up in the stems. The effect of silvicultural regime was much more limited on the lower site index. Within-stand differentiation resulted in a variation of tree diameter (DBH); larger trees had significantly larger knots. Furthermore, knots were larger towards south than towards north in both trials. These results illustrated that, by using non-destructive measurements on trees sampled from permanent research plots, it was possible to simultaneously study the variation of internal knot size at stand (such as site and silviculture effects), within-stand (such as relative tree size) and within-tree levels (such as height and azimuth). However, lack of replication prevented valid statistical inference as to stand-level effects.
  • Moberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lennart.moberg@sh.slu.se (email)
article id 662, category Research article
Lars Björklund. (1999). Identifying heartwood-rich stands or stems of Pinus sylvestris by using inventory data. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 662. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.662
Variations in heartwood percentage, heartwood radius and sapwood width, within and between stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), were analysed using a database of 198 CT-scanned (computer tomography) stems from 33 research plots (stands) throughout Sweden. Heartwood percentage varied greatly both between individual trees and between stands, and correlated poorly to site, stand and tree variables. This implies that it seems unfeasible to identify heartwood-rich stands or stems, e.g., for production of heartwood products, by using inventory data. Heartwood formation expressed as the number of new heartwood rings formed each year was found to increase with increasing cambial age, from about 0.5 rings per year at a cambial age of 45 years, to about 0.8 rings per year at a cambial age of 115 years.
  • Björklund, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.bjorklund@sh.slu.se (email)
article id 661, category Research article
Eira-Maija Savonen & Anna Saarsalmi. (1999). Effects of clone and fertilization on the seed and foliar chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grafts. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 661. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.661
Effects of clone and fertilization on the seed and foliar nutrient concentrations of Scots pine grafts were investigated in a seed orchard in southern Finland. The seed and foliar samples for chemical analyses were collected during winters 1985–86 and 1988–89 from 39 grafts per clone fertilized in spring 1986. There were 6 clones and 13 treatments for each clone with three replications. The treatments consisted of N, P, K in various combinations, micronutrients, wood ash and grass control. Macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (Cu, Zn, B) were analysed. There were statistically significant differences between the clones in seed nutrient concentrations. The variation of the K, Mg, Ca, Zn and Cu concentrations between the two study years was considerably larger in the seeds than in the needles. The concentrations of these elements in the seeds were low in the year of an abundant seed crop in spite of fertilization. This had, however, no negative effects on germination of seeds. The proportions of crude fat and crude protein were high in both years (34% and 35% in 1985 ; 33% and 38% in 1988). Fertilization had only minor or no effect at all on the seed chemical composition in the orchard with a satisfactory nutrient status of the soil. Also on the foliar nutrient concentrations the effect of the clone was stronger than that of fertilization. Grafts with large needles produced heavy seeds, which had more storage proteins than the lighter seeds.
  • Savonen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eira-maija.savonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Saarsalmi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 660, category Research article
Erkki Annila, Bo Långström, Martti Varama, Risto Hiukka & Pekka Niemelä. (1999). Susceptibility of defoliated Scots pine to spontaneous and induced attack by Tomicus piniperda and Tomicus minor. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 660. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.660
In 1990–1991, Diprion pini extensively defoliated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees in Lauhanvuori National Park in southwestern Finland. Many trees lost all their foliage, while others had ca. 10% foliage left after the second year of defoliation. Outside the national park, many nearby stands were also heavily defoliated in 1990, but were sprayed with diflubenzuron (Dimilin®) in 1991. This protected the current year needles, corresponding to ca 30% of full foliage. In spring 1992, pine trees with 0, 10, 30 and 100% foliage remaining (10 small and 10 large trees in each category) were baited with pine bolts to induce stem attacks by pine shoot beetles. All baited trees were attacked by Tomicus piniperda and some by T. minor. The attacks failed in all these trees except those that were totally defoliated and some of the small trees with 10% foliage left. Many unbaited trees escaped attack entirely, but only totally defoliated trees were successfully colonized (i.e. produced brood). Attack densities and brood production figures peaked in baited, large and totally defoliated trees. None of the measures (cambial electrical resistance, resin flow, induced lesion length by fungal inoculation, amount of hydrocarbons or phenolic compounds) used to describe tree vigour at the time of attack gave better information than the estimated remaining foliage. We conclude that the risk for beetle-induced mortality following defoliation is a function of remaining needle biomass and beetle pressure. Even at high beetle densities (as was simulated by baiting of trees), trees with 10% of the foliage remaining were able to defend themselves against attacking pine shoot beetles.
  • Annila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: erkki.annila@metla.fi (email)
  • Långström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Entomology, P. O. Box 7044, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varama, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiukka, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

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