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Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 | 1998

Category: Research article

article id 686, category Research article
Jean Yves Fraysse & Loïc Crémière. (1998). Nursery factors influencing containerized Pinus pinaster seedlings’ initial growth. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 686. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.686
Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) containerized seedlings were raised outdoors at different fertilizer regimes, sowing date or culture duration to assess nursery factors influencing first year growth in the field. Seedling biomass, and N, P and K content before outplanting were affected by these different factors but the one year field growth was more related to N concentration than with morphological traits. The results are discussed in view to improve the plant stock quality in nursery.
  • Fraysse, AFOCEL, Domaine de Sivaillan, 33480 Moulis-en-Médoc, France ORCID ID:E-mail: sudouest@afocel.fr (email)
  • Crémière, AFOCEL, Domaine de Sivaillan, 33480 Moulis-en-Médoc, France ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 685, category Research article
S. P. Sah, I. C. Dutta & M. S. Haque. (1998). Nursery and field response of sissoo plants (Dalbergia sissoo) to Rhizobium inoculation. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 685. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.685
The present research work aims to demonstrate the rehabilitation of a degraded forest land by afforestation of sissoo plants (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) inoculated with nitrogen fixing bacteria sp. In this study, effects of the three different Rhizobium isolates from three localities such as i. Kotre-isolate, ii. Pokhara-isolate and iii. Syangaza-isolate were assessed both in nursery and in the field. It was noted that the growth and biomass increment of seedlings in nursery as well as in the field after rhizobial inoculation were significantly high compared to control one. Among these 3-isolates, Kotre-isolate was found to be superior to others. Soil improvement around the root of inoculated seedlings was remarkable high. Nitrogen content of the soil increased in the range of 20–40% compared to control (only 10–20%). Kotre-isolate, in general, caused more soil improvement than the other isolates. The nutrient content in the green foliage, particularly nitrogen, increased in the range of 30–50%, compared to control one. The considerable increase in nutrients content of soil as well as in the foliage indicates the improvement in the quality of site.
  • Sah, Department of Biology, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail: ssah@wlink.com.np (email)
  • Dutta, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haque, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 684, category Research article
H. M. McKay. (1998). Root electrolyte leakage and root growth potential as indicators of spruce and larch establishment. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 684. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.684
The relationship between the condition of bare-rooted 2-year-old seedlings of Sitka spruce and larch at the time of planting and their survival and growth after 2 years was examined. Data were analysed for 2 experiments using seedlings lifted and stored at +1 °C throughout the winter for planting in April and also for 2 experiments using seedlings planted directly on different dates without cold storage. Electrolyte leakage from the fine roots of spruce was closely correlated to survival following direct planting at different times from September to April and fine root leakage was a more accurate indicator of spruce performance than root growth potential. However the pattern of larch survival of directly planted stock was more closely related to root growth potential than to root leakage. When seedlings were cold-stored, root electrolyte leakage and root growth potential were modified during storage and following cold storage, the performance of both species was more closely related to root electrolyte leakage than root growth potential. These results are interpreted as meaning that successful establishment of bare-rooted seedlings requires a functional nursery root system that is capable of both supplying adequate water for a limited period immediately after transplanting and of producing roots to meet the seedling’s increased water demand later in the growing season.
  • McKay, Forest Commission Research Agency, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9SY, Scotland ORCID ID:E-mail: h.mckay@forestry.gov.uk (email)
article id 683, category Research article
Anders Karlsson, Arne Albrektson, Anders Forsgren & Lennart Svensson. (1998). An analysis of successful natural regeneration of downy and silver birch on abandoned farmland in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.683
To improve our understanding of factors influencing the success of natural regeneration with downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) on abandoned farmlands, a survey was conducted to analyse the effects of site conditions and site preparation characteristics. The study was based on a sample plot inventory conducted in one northern and one southern district of Sweden, in which 29 successfully established, naturally regenerated stands, about to be cleaned or thinned, were assessed. Radical site preparation increased stand density and uniformity of established regeneration, and gave faster initial development, than establishment without site preparation on former leys or meadows. Large proportions of the total sample area were classified as moist, and soils consisting of sand–fine sand or peat were frequent. The frequency of birch stems was highest in mesic sites, and on soils consisting of sand, sand–fine sand or peat. Distances to seed-trees were generally shorter than 80 m, and downy birch was the dominant species in most stands.
  • Karlsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: anders.karlsson@ssko.slu.se (email)
  • Albrektson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Forsgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Svensson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 682, category Research article
Guangxing Wang, Simo Poso, Mark-Leo Waite & Markus Holopainen. (1998). The use of digitized aerial photographs and local operation for classification of stand development classes. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 682. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.682
The increasing capacity of modern computers has created the opportunity to routinely process the very large data sets derived by digitizing aerial photographs. The very fine resolution of such data sets makes them better suited than satellite imagery for some applications; however, there may be problems in implementation resulting from variation in radial distortion and illumination across an aerial photograph. We investigated the feasibility of using local operators (e.g., non-overlapping moving window means and standard deviations) as auxiliary data for generating stand development classes via three steps: (i) derive 6 local operators intended to represent texture for a 16 by 16 m window corresponding to a forest inventory sampling unit, (ii) apply a calibration process (e.g., accounting for location relative to a photo's principal point and solar position) to these local operators, and (iii) apply the calibrated local operators to classify the forest for stand development. Results indicate that calibrated local operators significantly improve the classification compared to what is possible using uncalibrated local operators and satellite images.
  • Wang, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: wang12@staff2.cso.uiuc.edu (email)
  • Poso, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Waite, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 681, category Research article
Virpi Palomäki, Alpo Hassinen, Matti Lemettinen, Timo Oksanen, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Jarmo Holopainen, Seppo Kellomäki & Toini Holopainen. (1998). Open-top chamber fumigation system for exposure of field grown Pinus sylvestris to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentration. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 681. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.681
An open-top chamber fumigation system was built in a young Scots pine stand to study the effects of realistic elevated ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and their combination on trees in natural conditions. Doubled CO2 concentration compared to present ambient concentration, and O3 concentration between 40 ppb and 70 ppb in the first study year (1994) and doubled O3 concentration in years 1995 and 1996 were the target concentrations in the chambers. The O3 concentration in the chambers was successfully maintained close to the target concentration and differences between chambers were small. The mean CO2 concentration in the CO2 treatment was ca. 100 ppm below the target, but was maintained at this level throughout the growing season. Two degrees higher mean air temperature and slightly lower light intensity compared to open air were measured in the chambers. The operation of the fumigation system was satisfactory during the three study years and repeatability of the gas treatments can be regarded good in this low cost exposure system.
  • Palomäki, University of Kuopio, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: virpi.palomaki@uku.fi (email)
  • Hassinen, Mekrijärvi Research Station, FIN-82900 Ilomantsi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lemettinen, Mekrijärvi Research Station, FIN-82900 Ilomantsi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oksanen, University of Kuopio, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Helmisaari, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O.Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, Agricultural Research Centre, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O.Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, University of Kuopio, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 688, category Review article
John A. Stanturf, Callie J. Schweitzer & Emile S. Gardiner. (1998). Afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, U.S.A. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.688
Afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) relies on native species, planted mostly in single-species plantations. Hard mast species such as oak and pecan are favored for their value to wildlife, especially on public land. Successful afforestation requires an understanding of site variation within floodplains and matching species preferences and tolerances to site characteristics, in particular to inundation regimes. Soil physical conditions, root aeration, nutrient availability, and moisture availability during the growing season also must be considered in matching species to site. Afforestation methods include planting seedlings or cuttings, and direct-seeding. Both methods can be done by hand or by machine. If good quality seedlings are planted properly and well cared for before planting, the chances for successful establishment are high but complete failures do occur. Mortality and poor growth are caused by many factors: extended post-planting drought or flooding; poor planting or seeding practices; poor quality seed or seedlings; animal depredation; or herbicide drift from aerial application to nearby cropland. More species can be planted, even on continuously flooded sites. Direct-seeding, while limited to heavy-seeded species (oaks and hickories), costs less than 50% of planting seedlings. Growth varies considerably by soil type; most bottomland hardwoods grow best on silt loam and less well on clay soils. Up to 200 000 ha of land in the LMAV subject to spring and early summer backwater flooding could be afforested over the next decade.
  • Stanturf, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: jstantur/srs_stoneville@fs.fed.us (email)
  • Schweitzer, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gardiner, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 687, category Review article
Janusz B. Zwolinski, David B. South & E. A. P. Droomer. (1998). Pine mortality after planting on post-agricultural lands in South Africa. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 687. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.687
Successful afforestation has been practiced in South Africa for more than a century. Recently, however, problems with afforestation of pines have occurred in the northeastern part of the Eastern Cape Province. Rapid mortality of Pinus patula and P. elliottii have occurred when small container seedlings were planted on old-agricultural soils. Death would often occur within 5 months of planting. Growth of surviving trees was retarded and new needles were chlorotic and stunted. Acceptable survival was obtained when seedlings were planted on virgin grasslands. Apparently, some unseen factor in the post-agricultural soil reduces root growth, increases mortality, and decreases uptake of nutrients. Removal of the infested soil by scalping greatly improves survival and growth as does soil fumigation with methyl bromide.
  • Zwolinski, Northeast Cape Forests, 19 Nassau St., 5470 Ugie, Rep. of South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: janusz.zwolinski@paper.mondi.co.za (email)
  • South, School of Forestry, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5418, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Droomer, Northeast Cape Forests, 19 Nassau St., 5470 Ugie, Rep. of South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail:

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