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Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 | 2012

Category: Research article

article id 922, category Research article
Malin Nilsson, Dianne Staal Westerlund, Olof Wahlberg & Ljusk Ola Eriksson. (2012). Forest planning in a Swedish company – a knowledge management analysis of forest information. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 922. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.922
Forest data and forest information are central to forest management planning. The knowledge a large forest-owning company possesses about its forests could potentially be a strategic capability. In this study, the forest-planning process of a large forest company is analyzed in terms of knowledge management (KM). The study was conducted as a case study of Sveaskog – the largest forest-owning company in Sweden. The study focuses on the long-term harvest strategy through medium-term planning until the stands are transferred to the tract bank and ready for operational planning. Interviews with key persons within the organization were conducted to assess how forest knowledge is used in this process. The results are presented for the four knowledge management processes: creation, storage-retrieving, transferring and applying. They show that the planning system relies to a great extent on codified knowledge realized by a push strategy.
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: malin.nilsson@slu.se (email)
  • Staal Westerlund, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: dianne.wasterlund@slu.se
  • Wahlberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eriksson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ljusk.ola.eriksson@slu.se
article id 921, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen. (2012). Tracheid wall thickness and lumen diameter in different axial and radial locations in cultivated Larix sibirica trunks. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.921
In Larix trunks the properties of wood differ clearly radially, but the axial differences are smaller as well as being less studied. Wood anatomy is in particular poorly studied, even though all other wood properties derive from cell and tissue structure. The aim of this study was to chart variation in tracheid size (double wall thickness (2CWT), diameter of lumen (RD)) within fast grown cultivated Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) trunks. The differences in 2CWT and RD were clear between earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW), 2CWT increasing clearly less in EW than in LW towards the bark, while RD stayed quite stable in LW but in EW increased markedly towards the bark. The difference in 2CWT between EW and LW increased towards the upper trunk. In conclusion, the radial variation in RD and 2CWT was different between the butt and other studied heights. As the difference in 2CWT between EW and LW was smaller at the butt than the upper portion of the trunk, the wood was the most homogenous at the butt.
  • Luostarinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@uef.fi (email)
article id 920, category Research article
Hannu Hökkä, Jaakko Repola, Mikko Moilanen & Markku Saarinen. (2012). Seedling establishment on small cutting areas with or without site preparation in a drained spruce mire – a case study in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 920. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.920
A large proportion of drained spruce mire stands is currently approaching regeneration maturity in Finland. We studied the effect of cutting – small canopy openings (78, 177, and 314 m2) and small clear-cuts (0.25–0.37 ha) – with or without site preparation (scalping) on the establishment of natural Norway spruce seedlings in one experimental drained spruce mire stand in northern Finland. The cuttings were made in winter 2004–2005 and site preparation with scalping in early June 2005. The experimental design was composed of four blocks with altogether four clear-cuts and 33 canopy openings. The seedling establishment was surveyed annually (2006, 2008–2010) from five circular sample plots (one 10 m2 and four 5 m2 plots in size) located within the canopy openings and from 18 circular 5 m2 sample plots systematically located in the scalped and untreated halves of the clear-cuts. Site preparation was found unnecessary, because it resulted in a clearly lower number of seedlings in the openings. A slight negative effect was also found in the clear-cuts. In the two years following the cuttings, the number of seedlings increased quickly in the canopy openings, but more gradually in the clear-cut areas. In 2010, on average 15 500 new seedlings were observed in the canopy openings and 6700 in the clear-cut areas, of which 5050 and 1200, respectively, were >0.1 m tall spruces. The proportion of birch increased in the last two years, being ca. 22% in the openings and 45% in the clear-cuts in 2010. The spatial distribution of seedlings was more uneven in the clear-cuts than in the openings, with 41% and 20% of survey plots empty, respectively.
  • Hökkä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@metla.fi (email)
  • Repola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@metla.fi
  • Moilanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Oulu Unit, P.O. Box 413, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.moilanen@metla.fi
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markku.saarinen@metla.fi
article id 919, category Research article
Karri Uotila, Juho Rantala & Timo Saksa. (2012). Estimating the need for early cleaning in Norway spruce plantations in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 919. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.919
Effective management of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) plantations requires detailed information on stand development, which is costly to measure. However, estimating the need for early stand management from site attributes that persists stabile after ones measured, may provide an inexpensive alternative. This study compared hardwood competition in spruce plantations of varying ages and tested the usability of this information in estimating the need for early cleaning. The data included 197 spruce plantations (4–7 years old) inventoried in southern Finland in 2007. The level (Low, Substantial, High) of need for early cleaning was subjectively determined by contrasting location and size of competing hardwoods to a conifer crop tree. Then the stage of the need for early cleaning was modelled according to site and stand attributes. Nearly 60% of the conifer crop trees in the plantations were subjectively judged to require early cleaning (Substantial 37.2%, High 21.2%), but only 10 per cent of the evaluated area was cleaned. Need for cleaning was intense on peatlands or damp soils, whereas it was mild on unprepared soils or cleaned sites. Traditional site characteristics used in forest management planning can be useful for recognising the peripheral cases, where need for cleaning is probably high or low. However, on a typical mineral soil plantation (uncleaned, soil prepared) the model indicates the differences in the need for early cleaning weakly. The need for early cleaning was already high in 4-year-old plantations, why stand age did not have significant effect on development of the need. Thus, the timing of an operation can not be predicted with the model. Nonetheless, early cleaning very likely opens growth space of crop trees in a 4–7-year-old spruce plantation. Therefore, from an aspect of crop growth, an uncleaned Norway spruce plantation in this age group is quite consistently worth cleaning.
  • Uotila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: karri.uotila@metla.fi (email)
  • Rantala, Metsä Group, Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metsagroup.com
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@metla.fi
article id 918, category Research article
Nelson Thiffault, François Hébert & Robert Jobidon. (2012). Planted Picea mariana growth and nutrition as influenced by silviculture x nursery interactions on an ericaceous-dominated site. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 918. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.918
We aimed at evaluating the interacting effects of silvicultural and nursery practices on planted black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) dimensions, growth, survival and nutrition, 8 years following planting on a carefully logged boreal stand heavily invaded by Kalmia angustifolia L. and Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd. We also evaluated functional traits related to light and nutrient acquisition and key environmental resource availability to interpret treatment impacts on spruce seedling leaf traits and growth. An experimental black spruce plantation, consisting in a randomized block split-split-split plot design with 13 replicates was established in northeastern Quebec (Canada). Scarification (single-pass, double-pass), fertilization at the time of planting (control; macronutrients only; macro + micronutrients), stock type (container-grown; bare-root), and initial foliar N concentration (4 increasing levels) treatments were applied, and measurements were performed 5 and 8 years following planting. Double-pass scarification significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the competition cover, compared to the single-pass treatment. As a result, double-pass scarification promoted seedling growth over the single-pass treatment, and influenced the expression of other treatment effects. However, the relative gains associated with the second scarification pass have to be balanced against the supplemental investment involved by the treatment before being recommended. Our results point to variable effects of fertilization at planting to stimulate seedling initial growth. In this ecosystem, it appears that the silvicultural gains of this treatment depend on the variable of interest. Bare-root seedlings grew faster than containerized seedlings in the most intense site preparation treatment, but the differences have limited silvicultural impacts.
  • Thiffault, Ministère des Ressources naturelles du Québec, Direction de la recherche forestière, 2700 rue Einstein, Québec, QC, Canada G1P 3W8 ORCID ID:E-mail: nelson.thiffault@mrnf.gouv.qc.ca (email)
  • Hébert, Ministère des Ressources naturelles du Québec, Direction de la recherche forestière, 2700 rue Einstein, Québec, QC, Canada G1P 3W8 ORCID ID:E-mail: ffrancois.hebert@mrnf.gouv.qc.ca
  • Jobidon, Ministère des Ressources naturelles du Québec, Direction de la recherche forestière, 2700 rue Einstein, Québec, QC, Canada G1P 3W8 ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.jobidon@mrnf.gouv.qc.ca
article id 917, category Research article
Anna Gunulf, Rebecka Mc Carthy & Jonas Rönnberg. (2012). Control efficacy of stump treatment and influence of stump height on natural spore infection by Heterobasidion spp. of precommercial thinning stumps of Norway spruce and birch. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 917. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.917
An alternative precommercial thinning technique results in trees being cut higher up the stem compared to the normal method using a brush saw. The aims of this study were to investigate if primary infection of Heterobasidion spp. on precommercial thinning stumps of Norway spruce and birch is influenced by stump height and to test the control efficacy of stump treatment with Phlebiopsis gigantea on precommercial thinning stumps of Norway spruce. Small Norway spruce and birch trees were felled on five sites in southern Sweden and their stumps subjected to natural spore infection. For each species, two treatments of stump height were created: 15 and 100 cm. Half of the Norway spruce stumps were treated with P. gigantea. After two months, 896 stumps were sampled and infection by Heterobasidion spp. was quantified. The height of stumps did not significantly influence infection frequency or size of infection on either tree species. Untreated Norway spruce stumps had an infection frequency of 55% while 31% of the treated stumps were infected. The control efficacy of stump treatment in terms of reduced relative infected area was 61–65%. The area occupied by Heterobasidion spp. on birch stumps was generally small, on average 0.4 cm2 per infected stump, although 15% of the stumps were infected. The risk of primary infection in Norway spruce dominated stands should be considered when precommercial thinning is conducted but the control efficacy and economy of stump treatment warrants further investigation before practical recommendations can be made.
  • Gunulf, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.gunulf@slu.se (email)
  • Mc Carthy, Skogsforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Rebecka.McCarthy@skogforsk.se
  • Rönnberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: jonas.ronnberg@slu.se
article id 916, category Research article
M. Carmen San José, Lourdes Romero & Laura V. Janeiro. (2012). Effect of indole-3-butyric acid on root formation in Alnus glutinosa microcuttings. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 916. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.916
A study of the in vitro rooting process in mature alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) shoots is described. Microcuttings from shoots cultured in vitro were transferred to a half-strength Woody Plant Medium containing 0 or 0.1 mg l–1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 0 to 7 days. The presence of IBA in the medium increased the rooting percentage, number of roots, percentage of lateral roots, and length of the shoots. Histological studies were carried out with shoots treated with 0 or 0.1 mg l–1 IBA for 7 days. According to these criteria, treatment with IBA for 2–3 days proved to be the most successful. In both treatments, substancial reactivation of cell division was observed at the base of the shoots after 1 day. Some cambial zone and adjacent phloem cells became dense cytoplasm, having nuclei with prominent nucleoli. The first cell divisions were also observed at this time. In the treatment with IBA (0.1 mg l–1 for 7 days), meristemoids became individualized, consisting of densely staining cells, by day 3. Identifiable conical shaped root primordia with several cell layers were visible after 4–5 days. Roots with an organized tissue system emerged from the stem after 6 days in the IBA-treated shoots. Meristemoid formation was delayed until the fourth day and root emergence until the eight day in the control treatment (no IBA).
  • San José, Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia, CSIC, Avda de Vigo s/n, Apartado 122, 15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: sanjose@iiag.csic.es (email)
  • Romero, CIFP Politécnico de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Janeiro, INLUDES, Diputación Provincial de Lugo, Lugo, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: lauravj68@hotmail.com

Category: Review article

article id 923, category Review article
Katarzyna A. Jadwiszczak. (2012). What can molecular markers tell us about the glacial and postglacial histories of European birches? Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 923. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.923
The last glaciation was one of the most severe of the Pleistocene epoch. The development of the Scandinavian ice sheet forced many species to reduce their ranges to areas with favourable climatic conditions. Most European species survived the Last Glacial Maximum in refugia in southern parts of Europe. Cold-tolerant species, such as birch trees and shrubs, could also inhabit western, eastern or central Europe. After climate warming, Holocene recolonisation began. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the genetic variation of four European Betula species to reconstruct their glacial and postglacial histories. Two chloroplast DNA haplotypes dominate within the ranges of all birch species, one haplotype is the most common in western and northwestern Europe, the second haplotype occurs mainly in the eastern and southeastern parts of the continent. This finding suggests that birches have recolonised Europe from the western and the eastern refugia, respectively. Most of Europe was likely populated from higher latitude refugia because there was no evidence of isolation by distance and weak genetic structures were detected. Similar patterns of haplotype distributions within Betula ranges indicate that postglacial recolonisation may be disturbed by interspecies hybridisation.
  • Jadwiszczak, Institute of Biology, University of Bialystok, wierkowa 20B, 15-950 Bialystok, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: kszalaj@uwb.edu.pl (email)

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