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Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 | 2013

Category: Research article

article id 1073, category Research article
Pedro Sánchez-Gómez, Juan F. Jiménez, Juan B. Vera, Francisco J. Sánchez-Saorín, Juan F. Martínez & Joseph Buhagiar. (2013). Genetic structure of Tetraclinis articulata, an endangered conifer of the western Mediterranean basin. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 1073. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1073
Highlights: The employment of ISSR molecular markers has shown moderate genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation in Tetraclinis articulata; Genetic structure of populations seems to be influenced by the anthropogenic use of this species since historical times, or alternatively, by the complex palaeogeographic history of the Mediterranean basin; Results could be used to propose management policies for conservation of populations.
Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters is a tree distributed throughout the western Mediterranean basin. It is included in the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) red list, and protected by law in several of the countries where it grows. In this study we examined the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 14 populations of T. articulata in its whole geographic range using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) markers. T. articulata showed moderate genetic diversity at intrapopulation level and high genetic differentiation. The distribution of genetic diversity among populations did not exhibit a linear pattern related to geographic distances, since all analyses (principal coordinate analysis, Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and Bayesian structure analysis) revealed that spanish population grouped with Malta and Tunisia populations. Although it is possible that T. articulata earlier was natural in Southeast Spain, results suggest that the current population has been reintroduced into the Iberian Peninsula in historical times, due to its utility in mining and building. In addition, results could be used to propose management guidelines for the conservation of T. articulata.
  • Sánchez-Gómez, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: psgomez@um.es
  • Jiménez, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: fjimenez@um.es (email)
  • Vera, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: jbveraperez@gmail.com
  • Sánchez-Saorín, Dirección General de Medio Ambiente, Consejería de Presidencia de la Región de Murcia, C/ Catedrático Eugenio Úbeda nº3, E-30071 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: fjavier.sanchez3@carm.es
  • Martínez, Dirección General de Medio Ambiente, Consejería de Presidencia de la Región de Murcia, C/ Catedrático Eugenio Úbeda nº3, E-30071 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: juanf.martinez@carm.es
  • Buhagiar, Argotti Herbarium and Gardens (UOM), Triq Vincenzo Bugeja Floriana VLT 16, Malta ORCID ID:E-mail: joseph.buhagiar@um.edu.mt
article id 1071, category Research article
Ursula Kretschmer, Nadeschda Kirchner, Christopher Morhart & Heinrich Spiecker. (2013). A new approach to assessing tree stem quality characteristics using terrestrial laser scans. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 1071. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1071
Highlights: Minimal deviations of the bark surface can be detected and visualized based on terrestrial laser scan data; Additionally the geometrical properties of bark scars and branched knots can be assessed; Two methods using two different approaches are presented: (1) a method using intensity data and (2) a method using bark surface models.
This paper presents an approach to assess and measure bark characteristics as indicators of wood quality using terrestrial laser scan data. In addition to the detection and measurement by use of the intensity information of the scan data a new approach was established. Bark surface models are calculated for each tree. They offer the representation of the bark as a height model. The reference is the tree stem approximated by a chain of cylinders. Minimal deviations of the bark surface can be detected and visualized and the geometrical properties of bark scars and branched knots can be assessed. Results of the measurement of 18 scars are presented using the two approaches: (1) a method using intensity data or (2) using bark surface models. The selection of the adequate approach depends on the stem characteristics. In a next step, methods for automatic measurement of bark scars will be developed.
  • Kretschmer, Chair of Forest Growth, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106 Freiburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: ursula.kretschmer@iww.uni-freiburg.de (email)
  • Kirchner, VOLKE Consulting Engineers GmbH, Schätzweg 7-9, 80935 München, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: nadeschda.kirchner@volke.muc.de
  • Morhart, Chair of Forest Growth, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106 Freiburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: christopher.morhart@iww.uni-freiburg.de
  • Spiecker, Chair of Forest Growth, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106 Freiburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: instww@uni-freiburg.de
article id 984, category Research article
Christian Rottensteiner, Petros Tsioras, Heinz Neumayer & Karl Stampfer. (2013). Vibration and noise assessment of tractor-trailer and truck-mounted chippers. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 984. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.984
Highlights: Truck-mounted chippers were associated with higher vibration values, while tractor-trailer chippers had higher noise level; Chipping hardwood produced higher vibration magnitudes than softwood; Vibration and noise values in most cases did not exceed the exposure limit values set by the European Union.
During chipping, machine operators are exposed to whole-body vibration and noise bearing a risk to health. Vibration on the operator’s seat and noise inside the chipper cab was measured and analyzed. The factorial design considered two setup variants (tractor-trailer and truck-mounted) of two chipper models from different manufacturers during chipping of softwood and hardwood tree species. Furthermore, exposure to noise was measured during chipping of hardwood. Vibration and noise during chipping, driving between wood piles, and operational delays were measured separately. The results associated truck-mounted chippers with higher vibration values and tractor-trailer chippers with higher noise levels. The highest vibration levels were recorded while driving on the forest road from one log pile to another and the second highest during chipping. On the contrary, the lowest vibration levels were measured during operational delays with the chipper in idling condition. Chipping hardwood produced higher vibration magnitudes than softwood. Exposure to noise was significantly higher during chipping compared to driving and operational delays. Vibration and noise data were combined with time studies data, for the calculation of eight-hour energy equivalent total values, both for vibration and noise. In all cases, the exposure limit values set by the European Union were not exceeded, with the exception of truck-mounted chippers, which are likely to exceed the exposure action value for vibration.
  • Rottensteiner, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Forest Engineering, Peter Jordan Straße 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: christian.rottensteiner@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Tsioras, Aristotle University, P.O. Box 227, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail: ptsioras@for.auth.gr
  • Neumayer, Specialist in Occupational Medicine, Wörndlestraße 10, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: heinz.neumayer@die-arbeitsmedizin.at
  • Stampfer, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Forest Engineering, Peter Jordan Straße 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: karl.stampfer@boku.ac.at
article id 943, category Research article
Terje Gobakken, Lauri Korhonen & Erik Næsset. (2013). Laser-assisted selection of field plots for an area-based forest inventory. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 943. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.943
Highlights: Using laser data as auxiliary information in the selection of field plot locations helps to decrease costs in forest inventories based on airborne laser scanning; Two independent, differently selected sets of field plots were used for model fitting, and third for validation; Using partial instead of ordinary least squares had no major influence on the results; Forty well placed plots produced fairly reliable volume estimates.
Field measurements conducted on sample plots are a major cost component in airborne laser scanning (ALS) based forest inventories, as field data is needed to obtain reference variables for the statistical models. The ALS data also provides an excellent source of prior information that may be used in the design phase of the field survey to reduce the size of the field data set. In the current study, we acquired two independent modeling data sets: one with ALS-assisted and another with random plot selection. A third data set was used for validation. One canopy height and one canopy density variable were used as a basis for the ALS-assisted selection. Ordinary and partial least squares regressions for stem volume were fitted for four different strata using the two data sets separately. The results show that the ALS-assisted plot selection helped to decrease the root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted volume. Although the differences in RMSE were relatively small, models based on random plot selection showed larger mean differences from the reference in the independent validation data. Furthermore, a sub-sampling experiment showed that 40 well placed plots should be enough for fairly reliable predictions.
  • Gobakken, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: terje.gobakken@umb.no
  • Korhonen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lauri.korhonen@uef.fi (email)
  • Næsset, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: erik.naesset@umb.no
article id 937, category Research article
Rene Zamora-Cristales, Kevin Boston, John Sessions & Glen Murphy. (2013). Stochastic simulation and optimization of mobile chipping economics in processing and transport of forest biomass from residues. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 937. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.937
Highlights: A stochastic simulation model is proposed to analyze forest biomass operations; The cost of chipper and truck waiting times was estimated in forest biomass recovery operations; The economic effect of truck-machine interactions under uncertainty was analyzed; Road characteristics and processing location have an economic impact in truck and chipper waiting times
We analyzed the economics of mobile chipping and transport of biomass from forest residues for energy purposes under uncertainty. A discrete-event simulation model was developed and utilized to quantify the impacts of controllable and environmental variables on productivity in order to determine the most cost effective transportation options under steep terrain conditions. Truck-chipper interactions were analyzed to show their effect on truck and chipper standing time. A costing model was developed to account for operating and standing time cost (for the chipper and trucks). The model used information from time studies of each activity in the productive cycle and spatial-temporal information obtained from geographic information system (GIS) devices, and tracking analysis of machine and truck movements. The model was validated in field operations, and proved to be accurate in providing the expected productivity. A cost distribution was elaborated to support operational decisions of forest managers, landowners and risk-averse contractors. Different scenarios were developed to illustrate the economic effects due to changes in road characteristics such as in-highway transport distance, in-forest internal road distance and pile to trailer chipper traveling distances.
  • Zamora-Cristales, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 280 Peavy Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: rene.zamora@oregonstate.edu (email)
  • Boston, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 280 Peavy Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: kevin.boston@oregonstate.edu
  • Sessions, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 280 Peavy Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: john.sessions@oregonstate.edu
  • Murphy, Waiariki Institute of Technology, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: glen.murphy@waiariki.ac.nz

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