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Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 | 2011

Category: Research article

article id 35, category Research article
Tapio Rantala. (2011). Democratic legitimacy of the forest sector and nature conservation decision-making in Finnish print media discussion. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 35. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.35
The study explores perceived democratic legitimacy of forest-related decision-making processes in the Finnish print media discourse. The data consists of the readers’ letters in four journals (n = 530), and the comments given during the preparation of the Finnish National Forest Program (n = 140). The objective is to identify the patterns of democratic legitimacy and respective performance evaluations of actual decision-making processes. The patterns can be classified as support for: (A) democracy and other forms of government, (B) different forms of participation, and (C) principles of democracy. The principles can be further classified into 1) core regime, 2) input, 3) throughput, and 4) output principles. Democratic legitimacy was found to be an important source of legitimacy in the public discussion since democratic patterns were found in more than half of the texts. The most common core legitimacy principles included freedom of speech, good national and international standing, forerunnership, and legality at national and international level. The central principles related to input legitimacy included popular sovereignty, a voice for the people, popular participation, openness, presenting alternatives, and urgency. The consensus and majority rules were found to be the most prominent throughput principles. Democratic output legitimacy included accountability, responsibility, cooperation, commitment, responsiveness, the possibility to appeal, credibility, comprehensiveness, and understandability. The findings suggest that among the writers of readers’ letters there is less contestation regarding the principles of democratic legitimacy but there are significant disagreements concerning the performance of decision-making processes. The negative performance evaluations were two times more frequent than the positive evaluations.
  • Rantala, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.rantala@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 34, category Research article
Natalie Macias & Chris Knowles. (2011). Examining the effect of environmental certification, wood source, and price on architects’ preferences of hardwood flooring. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 34. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.34
This article examines the importance architects place on three factors, environmental certification, wood source, and price, when specifying hardwood flooring. Architects were presented with nine flooring scenarios, in which the three factors were present in varying levels. They were asked to rank the scenarios from the least preferred to the most preferred. Data were obtained from a mail survey of architects in Oregon and Washington, U.S.A. (n = 402). Conjoint analyses determined that architects consider price and wood source to be the most important factors when specifying hardwood flooring. Interestingly, environmental certification was considered the least important factor. The respondents were then separated into three groups for further analysis based on whether they identified themselves as more influenced by environmental factors (biocentric) or human needs (anthropocentric). This analysis showed that the biocentric group favored wood source over price and environmental certification, while the anthropocentric group favored price.
  • Macias, Oregon State University, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: natalie.macias@gmail.com
  • Knowles, Oregon State University, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: chris.knowles@oregonstate.edu (email)
article id 33, category Research article
Raffaele Spinelli, Natascia Magagnotti, Giuseppe Paletto & Christian Preti. (2011). Determining the impact of some wood characteristics on the performance of a mobile chipper. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 33. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.33
A study was conducted to determine the effect of some wood characteristics such as species, moisture content and tree part on the performance and product quality offered by a mobile industrial chipper, of the type commonly used for roadside chipping. Two main species, two tree parts and two moisture content levels were combined in a factorial design yielding 8 treatments, each replicated 5 or 6 times. A flow meter was installed on the chipper engine, and all chips produced were weighed and sampled for moisture content and particle size distribution. The results indicated that some wood characteristics such as species and moisture content have a secondary effect on chipper productivity and fuel consumption, which are primarily controlled by piece size. In particular, fuel consumption per unit dry mass seem to be rather constant and in the range of 3.2 l per oven dry ton. Moisture content and tree part may have a significant effect on the particle size distribution of chips. Of course, these results were only verified for the species used in the test and for industrial chippers, and may change if substantially different species or machines are used.
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Magagnotti, CNR IVALSA, Via Biasi 75, S. Michele all’Adige (TN), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Paletto, CNR IMAMOTER, Strada delle Cacce 73, Torino, Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Preti, CNR IMAMOTER, Strada delle Cacce 73, Torino, Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 32, category Research article
Susete Marques, Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo, José G. Borges, Brigite Botequim, M. Manuela Oliveira, José Tomé & Margarida Tomé. (2011). Developing post-fire Eucalyptus globulus stand damage and tree mortality models for enhanced forest planning in Portugal. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 32. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.32
Forest and fire management planning activities are carried out mostly independently of each other. This paper discusses research aiming at the development of methods and tools that can be used for enhanced integration of forest and fire management planning activities. Specifically, fire damage models were developed for Eucalyptus globulus Labill stands in Portugal. Models are based on easily measurable forest characteristics so that forest managers may predict post-fire mortality based on forest structure. For this purpose, biometric data and fire-damage descriptors from 2005/2006 National Forest Inventory plots and other sample plots within 2006, 2007 and 2008 fire areas were used. A three-step modelling strategy based on logistic regression methods was used. In the first step, a model was developed to predict whether mortality occurs after a wildfire in a eucalypt stand. In the second step the degree of damage caused by wildfires in stands where mortality occurs is quantified (i.e. percentage of mortality). In the third step this mortality is distributed among trees. Data from over 85 plots and 1648 trees were used for modeling purposes. The damage models show that relative damage increases with stand basal area. Tree level mortality models indicate that trees with high diameters, in dominant positions and located in regular stands are less prone to die when a wildfire occurs.
  • Marques, Technical University of Lisbon, School of Agriculture, Forest Research Center, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail: smarques@isa.utl.pt (email)
  • Garcia-Gonzalo, Technical University of Lisbon, School of Agriculture, Forest Research Center, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Borges, Technical University of Lisbon, School of Agriculture, Forest Research Center, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Botequim, Technical University of Lisbon, School of Agriculture, Forest Research Center, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oliveira, Technical University of Lisbon, School of Agriculture, Forest Research Center, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tomé, Technical University of Lisbon, School of Agriculture, Forest Research Center, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tomé, Technical University of Lisbon, School of Agriculture, Forest Research Center, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 31, category Research article
Jeovanna Lowe, David Pothier, Jean-Pierre L. Savard, Ghislain Rompré & Mathieu Bouchard. (2011). Snag characteristics and cavity-nesting birds in the unmanaged post-fire northeastern Canadian boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 31. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.31
We studied the availability and characteristics of snags and their use by cavity-nesting birds in the northeastern part of the Canadian boreal forest. We built up two long-term (> 200 years) chronosequences following time since the last fire in the unmanaged boreal forest of northeastern Québec, one in the balsam fir-white birch domain (southern region) and one in the spruce-mosses domain (northern region). We then sampled and characterized snags and live trees in 30 stands from each of these two chronosequences. We also looked for nest cavities on all sampled snags, performed bird inventories by point counts, and calculated tree mortality rate from permanent sample plots. Results show that mortality rates follow a U-shaped pattern, with more snags of large diameter (> 20 cm DBH) in young (< 50 years) and in old (> 200 years) forests. In the latter, we also found more nest cavities than in any other age classes. Although abundance of primary cavity nesters (excavating species) did not vary among age classes, secondary cavity nesters (using cavities already available) tend to be more numerous in older forests. Our results highlight the capacity for young and old-growth forests to provide quality habitat for species that are dependent on large snags. Proper forest management should maintain a mosaic of different age forest stands, including snags, to promote biodiversity and provide important resources for resident bird species.
  • Lowe, Centre d’étude de la foret, Département des sciences du bois et de la foret, Pavillon Abitibi-Price, 2405 rue de la Terrasse, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail: jeovannalowe@gmail.com (email)
  • Pothier, Centre d’étude de la foret, Département des sciences du bois et de la foret, Pavillon Abitibi-Price, 2405 rue de la Terrasse, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Savard, Wildlife Research, Science and Technology, Québec Region, 1141 Route de l’Église, P.O. Box 10100, Québec, Québec, G1V 4H5, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rompré, Centre d’étude de la foret, Département des sciences du bois et de la foret, Pavillon Abitibi-Price, 2405 rue de la Terrasse, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada & Department of Biology and Health Sciences, 84 West South Street, Wilkes University, PA 18766, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bouchard, Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune, Direction de l’Environnement et de la Protection des Forets, 880 Chemin Ste-Foy, Quebec, Québec, G1S 4X4, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 30, category Research article
Hilppa Gregow, Heli Peltola, Mikko Laapas, Seppo Saku & Ari Venäläinen. (2011). Combined occurrence of wind, snow loading and soil frost with implications for risks to forestry in Finland under the current and changing climatic conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 30. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.30
This work focuses on the combined occurrence of wind, snow loading and soil frost with implications for risks to forestry in Finland under the current and changing climatic conditions. For this purpose, we employ meteorological datasets, available for the period of 1971–2009 and global climate model (GCM) simulations for the current climate 1971–2000, and periods 2046–65 and 2081–2100 applying the A1B-climate change scenario. Based on our results, the wind and snow induced risks to Finnish forests are projected to increase in the future although the change in the occurrence of strong winds is small. This is because soil frost depths that support tree anchorage from late autumn to early spring in Finland are projected to nearly disappear in the southern and central parts of the country. Heavy snow loads > 30 kg m–2 are becoming more common in southern and eastern Finland despite that the average cumulative 5-day snow loads decrease in these areas by 18 to 50%, respectively. As a result of the changes in the combined occurrence of wind, snow loading and soil frost, the risk of climatic conditions making conifers liable to uprooting are projected to increase in southern, central and eastern Finland. In the north, the risk of stem breakage is becoming more pronounced under snow loading > 20 kg m–2. Despite some uncertainties related to this work, we assume that the findings can serve as valuable support for the risk assessment of wind and snow induced damages to Finnish forests and for forestry, in general.
  • Gregow, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hilppa.gregow@fmi.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.peltola@uef.fi
  • Laapas, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saku, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Venäläinen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 29, category Research article
Piotr Androsiuk, Roman Zielinski & Kornelia Polok. (2011). B-SAP markers derived from the bacterial KatG gene differentiate populations of Pinus sylvestris and provide new insights into their postglacial history. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 29. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.29
The aim of the studies was to evaluate the efficiency of the KatG gene based B-SAP markers as a tool to distinguish morphologically diversified and geographically distant Scots pine populations and to track the routes of migrations. The 19 populations growing in the IUFRO 1982 provenance experiment and representing the natural distribution of the species in Europe were scored using 103 B-SAP loci. Among them 26% loci were polymorphic. The level of polymorphism was associated with the location of primers on the KatG template. The diversity was low, He = 0.086, and deposited mostly among populations. Seven unique markers were found that identified populations and likely they were associated with morphology. The overall genetic identity was relatively low, I = 0.933 (D = 0.069). The block of six B-SAP markers discriminated populations into two groups in agreement with their geographic origin and thereby further described as the North and the South. The North group was uniform with genetic diversity, He = 0.026 and the overall genetic distance D = 0.022. Presumably, it migrated from refugia in the Alps via France, northern Germany and Denmark, to Scandinavia and Russia. The South group was heterogeneous with He = 0.063 and D = 0.047. This group migrated from the Carpathians via Slovakia to Germany and Poland. The Balkans and Asian refugia did not take part in recolonization of Europe. The block of six B-SAP/KatG markers can be recommended for tracking postglacial history of Scots pine.
  • Androsiuk, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Department of Genetics, Plac Lodzki 3, 10-967 Olsztyn, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zielinski, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Department of Genetics, Plac Lodzki 3, 10-967 Olsztyn, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Polok, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Department of Genetics, Plac Lodzki 3, 10-967 Olsztyn, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: kpolok@moskit.uwm.edu.pl (email)
article id 28, category Research article
Lu-Min Vaario, Kim Yrjälä, Matti Rousi, Timo Sipilä & Pertti Pulkkinen. (2011). Leaf number indicates salt tolerance of young seedling families of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) growing in different soils. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 28. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.28
Soil salinity limits plant productivity and quality. We evaluated the response of 12 aspen (Populus tremula) families to salt stress in two different soils irrigated for 4-weeks with 0, 80 or 160 mM saline solution. Easily measurable characteristics such as shoot height, leaf number, dry mass as well as the distribution of sodium (Na+) ions were measured in 5-month-old aspen seedlings raised in controlled greenhouse conditions on two different soils. Growth among families varied significantly, and the interaction between family and soil type was significant. From 2–5 months, leaf number correlated with that of the first month and salinity tolerance. Sodium ions varied significantly within plants and among families; seedlings that accumulated higher Na+ concentrations in root had more leaves and lower Na+ in shoot. These results suggest that leaf number indicates salt tolerance in young seedlings. Seedling performance was also affected by soil type, especially the root/shoot ratio, suggesting an interaction between salt tolerance and growth medium. This study has identified significant intra-specific variation in salt tolerance of aspen in 160 mM saline and highlighted the potential to select and develop a method for efficient pre-screening of trees to be used in the reclamation of salt-affected land.
  • Vaario, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P. O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lu-min.vaario@metla.fi (email)
  • Yrjälä, MEM group, Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rousi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P. O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.rousi@metla.fi
  • Sipilä, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Research Unit, Haapastensyrjäntie 34, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@metla.fi

Category: Review article

article id 36, category Review article
Tuomo Wallenius. (2011). Major decline in fires in coniferous forests – reconstructing the phenomenon and seeking for the cause. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 36. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.36
Steep decline in forest fires about a century ago occurred in coniferous forests over large areas in North America and Fennoscandia. This poorly understood phenomenon has been explained by different factors in different regions. The objective of this study is to evaluate the validity of the four most commonly suggested causes of the decrease in forest fires: fire fighting, over-grazing, climate change and human influence. I compiled the available dendrochronological data and estimated the annually burned proportions of Pinus-dominated forests in four subcontinental regions during the past 500 years. These data were compared to the development of fire suppression, grazing pressure, climate and human livelihoods. The annually burned proportions declined over 90% in all studied regions. In three out of the four regions fires decreased decades before fire suppression began. Available drought data are annually well correlated with fires but could not explain the decrease of the level in annually burned areas. A rapid increase in the number of livestock occurred at the same time with the decrease in fires in the Western US but not in Fennoscandia. Hence, fire suppression in Central Fennoscandia and over-grazing in the Western US may have locally contributed to the reduction of burned areas. More general explanation is offered by human influence hypothesis: the majority of the past forest fires were probably caused by humans and the decrease in the annually burned areas was because of a decrease in human caused fires. This is in accordance with the old written records and forest fire statistics. The decrease in annually burned areas, both in Fennoscandia and the United States coincides with an economic and cultural transition from traditional livelihoods that are associated with high fire use to modern agriculture and forestry.
  • Wallenius, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuomo.wallenius@metla.fi (email)

Category: Research note

article id 37, category Research note
D. N. Avtzis & F. A. Aravanopoulos. (2011). Host tree and insect genetic diversity on the borderline of natural distribution: a case study of Picea abies and Pityogenes chalcographus (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) in Greece. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 37. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.37
Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pityogenes chalcographus constitute a commonly observed host tree–insect association in Eurasia, with the natural distribution of the bark beetle overlapping that of Norway spruce. The southernmost borderline of their distributions occurs in the Elatia forest (Mt. Rodopi, Greece), where these interacting organisms may experience severe conditions due to the effects of climate change. In order to assess the dynamics of this host tree–insect association, the genetic diversity of both organisms was studied. In contrast to previous studies, the assessment of molecular diversity was based on the same mitochondrial gene (Cytochrome Oxidase One) sequence for both host and pest. This analysis revealed a remarkably higher genetic diversity of P. chalcographus compared to that of P. abies, something that renders the insect capable not only of adapting to novel environmental conditions, but even of shifting to other host species. On the contrary, P. abies presented a narrow genetic base, a potential drawback at the southern-most region of the species natural distribution. Synthesizing the preliminary outcome for both organisms, it appears that P. chalcographus exhibits an evolutionary advantage over P. abies, something that should be considered when planning conservation strategies for the relict forest of Elatia.
  • Avtzis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Thessaloniki, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail: dimitrios.avtzis@gmail.com (email)
  • Aravanopoulos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Thessaloniki, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail:

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