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Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 | 2015

Category: Research article

article id 1408, category Research article
Anna Katharina Franke, Pasi Aatsinki, Ville Hallikainen, Esa Huhta, Mikko Hyppönen, Vesa Juntunen, Kari Mikkola, Seppo Neuvonen & Pasi Rautio. (2015). Quantifying changes of the coniferous forest line in Finnish Lapland during 1983–2009. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1408. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1408
Highlights: Volume of the growing stock of spruce and pine has increased in forests and in timber lines during the past 26 years; Spruce stem numbers increased on average, while pine stem numbers remained stable and location-specific variation was observed; Presuming that the ongoing trend of increasing temperature will remain, the enhanced forest regeneration and growth may result in extension of forests in the future.

The boreal timber- and tree-line forests grow in harsh environmental conditions in their outermost distribution limit. Here even small environmental changes may cause dramatic changes in the distribution of tree species. We examined changes of the forest lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finnish Lapland five times during 1983–2009. We monitored the number of stems and the volume of the growing stock in thirteen different locations in forest-line areas. The linear temporal trends and the variations of these response variables were used as indicators of a possible change during the study period. Spruce showed a significant increase both in the volume of the growing stock (up to 40% increase) and in the total stem number (up to 100% increase). A significant increase in the volume of the growing stock was observed in the pine data as well (up to 70% increase), whereas the stem number stagnated or even decreased. The results suggest that spruce needs favourable conditions to have an abundant regeneration, but after the establishment the seedlings seem to be more resistant against biotic and abiotic disturbances than pine seedlings. The increasing stand volume might result in a climate-related northward and upward extension of forests in the future. However, our results show that responses in the boreal forest line are species and location specific and a more favourable climate does not necessarily lead to an advance of the coniferous forest line.

  • Franke, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.franke@fau.de (email)
  • Aatsinki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.aatsinki@luke.fi
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@luke.fi
  • Huhta, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: esa.huhta@luke.fi
  • Hyppönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.hypponen@luke.fi
  • Juntunen, The Sámi Education Institute, Menesjärventie 4, P.O. Box 50, FI-99871 Inari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.juntunen@sogsakk.fi
  • Mikkola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.mikkola@luke.fi
  • Neuvonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.neuvonen@luke.fi
  • Rautio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.rautio@luke.fi
article id 1391, category Research article
Roberts Matisons, Jānis Jansons, Juris Katrevičs & Āris Jansons. (2015). Relation of tree-ring width and earlywood vessel size of alien Quercus rubra L. with climatic factors in Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1391. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1391
Highlights: Climate-growth relationships of red oak from three sites in Latvia were studied; Tree-ring width was mainly affected by temperature and precipitation in late summer; Vessel size was correlated with temperature parameters in autumn–spring; Sets of climatic factors significant for growth of red oak differed between sites; Changes in climate-growth relationships occurred during 20th century.

The effect of climatic factors on wood anatomy of the alien red oak (Quercus rubra L.) growing in three experimental plantations in Latvia was assessed by classical dendrochronological techniques. Two tree-ring proxies – tree-ring width (TRW) and mean area of earlywood vessel lumen (VLA) – were studied on 33 trees. Annual variation of TRW amongst trees was similar (mean r = 0.46), but there was more individuality in VLA (mean r = 0.26); nevertheless, chronologies of both proxies had rather synchronous variation amongst the sites. Annual variation of TRW was affected by factors related to water deficit in late summer, as suggested by the negative effect of temperature and positive effect of precipitation that have intensified during the 20th century, likely due to warming. Although weather conditions during the dormant period did not directly affect TRW, temperature during the autumn-spring period has been the main climatic determinant of VLA likely via influence on overwintering and hence vigour of tree. This suggests that conductive properties of wood and hence the susceptibility to water deficit have been affected by weather conditions before the formation of tree rings. During the 20th century, sensitivity of VLA has shifted from temperature in winter to temperature in autumn likely due to climate change. Still, the positive effect of these factors suggests that warming of climate would increase VLA and hence the risk of embolism and xylem disfunction. Therefore, the importance of availability of water for growth of red oak in Latvia is increasing.

  • Matisons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: robism@inbox.lv (email)
  • Jansons, Latvian Forest Competence Centre, Dzērbenes str. 27, Riga, Latvia, LV 1006 ORCID ID:E-mail: janis.jansons@silava.lv
  • Katrevičs, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: juris.katrevics@silava.lv
  • Jansons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv
article id 1354, category Research article
Johannes Edvardsson & Anton Hansson. (2015). Multiannual hydrological responses in Scots pine radial growth within raised bogs in southern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1354. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1354
Highlights: Annual growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Boreal raised bogs was found to reflect a synthesis of climate controlled moisture variability over the preceding one to four year period; Excessive soil moisture is a growth limiting factor for trees at raised bogs; River discharge data reflect hydrological conditions in peat bogs better than precipitation data.

To explore interactions between climate and peatland hydrology, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing at four raised bogs in southern Sweden were subject to a dendroclimatological study. Radial tree growth reflecting climate and water table fluctuations over multiannual periods was detected as significant negative correlations between tree-ring width (TRW) chronologies and the preceding one to four years total precipitation or river discharge. Systematically stronger negative correlations were obtained when river discharge instead of precipitation was compared to radial tree growth. This indicates that river discharge reflect moisture variability of peat bogs better than what precipitation data does. Meanwhile, monthly precipitation and radial tree growth did not show any clear correlation, whereas spring and early summer temperatures had a positive influence on the tree growth. Our study shows that growth variability of bog pines in the Boreal zone reflect hydrological responses related to a synthesis of climate controlled moisture variability over several year periods.

  • Edvardsson, Dendrolab.ch, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1+3, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland & Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5163-1599 E-mail: johannes.edvardsson@dendrolab.ch (email)
  • Hansson, Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: anton.hansson@geol.lu.se
article id 1326, category Research article
Joanna Bachmatiuk, Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo & Jose Guilherme Borges. (2015). Analysis of the performance of different implementations of a heuristic method to optimize forest harvest scheduling. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1326. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1326
Highlights: The number of treatment schedules available for each stand has an impact on the optimal configuration of opt-moves (i.e. number stands where the treatment schedule is changed in an iteration); Considering a large number of treatment schedules per stand, the one-opt move implementation is preferred, yet when considering a low number of decision choices the two-opt moves option performs better.
Finding an optimal solution of forest management scheduling problems with even flow constraints while addressing spatial concerns is not an easy task. Solving these combinatorial problems exactly with mixed-integer programming (MIP) methods may be infeasible or else involve excessive computational costs. This has prompted the use of heuristics. In this paper we analyze the performance of different implementations of the Simulated Annealing (SA) heuristic algorithm for solving three typical harvest scheduling problems. Typically SA consists of searching a better solution by changing one decision choice in each iteration. In forest planning this means that one treatment schedule in a single stand is changed in each iteration (i.e. one-opt move). We present a comparison of the performance of the typical implementation of SA with the new implementation where up to three decision choices are changed simultaneously in each iteration (i.e. treatment schedules are changed in more than one stand). This may allow avoiding local optimal. In addition, the impact of SA - parameters (i.e. cooling schedule and initial temperature) are tested. We compare our heuristic results with a MIP formulation. The study case is tested in a real forest with 1000 stands and a total of 213116 decision choices. The study shows that when the combinatorial problem is very large, changing simultaneously the treatment schedule in more than one stand does not improve the performance of SA. Contrarily, if we reduce the size of the problem (i.e. reduce considerably the number of alternatives per stand) the two-opt moves approach performs better.
  • Bachmatiuk, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail: jbachmatiuk@isa.ulisboa.pt (email)
  • Garcia-Gonzalo, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail: jordigarcia@isa.ulisboa.pt
  • Borges, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal ORCID ID:E-mail: joseborges@isa.ulisboa.pt
article id 1283, category Research article
Ivana Bjedov, Dragica Obratov–Petković, Danijela Mišić, Branislav Šiler & Jelena M Aleksic. (2015). Genetic patterns in range-edge populations of Vaccinium species from the central Balkans: implications on conservation prospects and sustainable usage. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1283. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1283
Highlights: We studied fragmentary distributed range-edge populations of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea from the Balkans using RAPDs; Low genetic diversities and high genetic differentiation were found in all species; The prevalence of clonal individuals was not observed; Past interspecific hybridization among V. vitis-idaea and the other two species was detected; Guidelines for conservation and sustainable usage were provided.

Vaccinium myrtillus L., Vaccinium uliginosum L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. are perennial, cold-adapted clonal shrubs distributed throughout Europe, northern Asia and North America. Due to their usage in food (berries) and pharmaceutical industry (berries and leaves), their natural populations are exposed to anthropogenic and other impacts that affect their genetic make-up. We analyzed 14 fragmentary distributed and small-sized peripheral populations of these species from the Balkans, which represents the southeastern-European marginal area of their wide European distributions, using RAPD molecular markers. The contemporary genetic patterns in all three species within the Balkans were generally similar, and in comparison to previous reports on populations of these species found in northward Europe, where they have a more continuous distribution, the levels of genetic diversity were more or less halved, genetic differentiation was several times higher, gene flow exceptionally low, and the expected prevalence of clonal individuals was lacking. The population dynamics of all three species within the Balkans was complex and distinct, and was characterized by a past admixture of individuals from discrete populations of the same species and interspecific hybridisation not only between V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea but also between V. uliginosum and V. vitis-idaea, the latter not being reported to date. Conservation measures suitable for preservation of presumably genetically distinct portions of the Balkans’ gene pools of studied species have been suggested, while the utility of interspecific hybrids in breeding programs and/ or in food/pharmaceutical industry is yet to be assessed. 

  • Bjedov, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: ivana.bjedov@sfb.bg.ac.rs
  • Obratov–Petković, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: dragica.obratov-petkovic@sfb.bg.ac.rs
  • Mišić, University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, Boulevard Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: dmisic@ibiss.bg.ac.rs
  • Šiler, University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, Boulevard Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: branislav.siler@ibiss.bg.ac.rs
  • Aleksic, University of Belgrade, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, Vojvode Stepe 444a, P.O. Box 23, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: aleksic_jelena@yahoo.com.au (email)
article id 1265, category Research article
Eva Ring, Lars Högbom, Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt & Staffan Jacobson. (2015). Soil and soil-water chemistry below different amounts of logging residues at two harvested forest sites in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1265. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1265
Highlights: Soil-water chemistry, ground vegetation cover and water flux were affected by the amounts of logging residues stored on the ground after harvest; A strong response on soil-water chemistry was recorded at only one of the two sites; At the site showing a weak response, less residue remained after seven years in the treatments giving the most pronounced effects.
Logging residues (LR), i.e. tops, branches, and needles, are increasingly being harvested for energy production in Fennoscandia. These residues are temporarily piled on site awaiting transport. This study was undertaken to investigate effects on the soil and soil-water chemistry below different amounts of LR at two recently harvested coniferous sites in Sweden. Seven treatments were included and the studied amounts of LR ranged from no LR left on the ground to four times the estimated LR amount of the harvested stands. Two treatments included eight times the estimated LR amount of the harvested stands but here the LR were removed after 7 or 20 weeks. Soil-water samples were collected during the first six or seven growing seasons. Effects of treatment were detected in the soil water for 11 chemical variables at the northern site, and for the NO3- and Cl- concentrations at the southern site. The strongest response was generally found in the treatment with four times the estimated LR amount, for which the highest concentrations were recorded in most cases. In the first three seasons, the water flux through the LR decreased with an increasing amount of residue. Effects on the exchangeable store of Ca2+ in the mor layer and the upper 20 cm of the mineral soil was detected at both sites. At the northern site, the weight of the remaining LR, ground vegetation and all other material above the mor layer in the treatments with two and four times the estimated LR amount was roughly twice the corresponding weights at the southern site seven years after treatment. Although strong effects on the soil-solution chemistry were detected at one of the study sites, in the treatments corresponding to two and four times the estimated logging residue amount, the effect on the leaching from an entire regeneration area is likely to be relatively small given the percentage of the area hosting these logging residue amounts (ca. 20% after stem-only harvesting and 9% after fuel-adapted felling).
  • Ring, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: eva.ring@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Högbom, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.hogbom@skogforsk.se
  • Nohrstedt, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hans-orjan.nohrstedt@slu.se
  • Jacobson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: staffan.jacobson@skogforsk.se
article id 1243, category Research article
Curt Almqvist & Gunnar Jansson. (2015). Effects of pruning and stand density on cone and pollen production in an experimental Pinus sylvestris seed orchard. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1243
Highlights: Pollen production of Pinus sylvestris began at the same age for all studied stand density and pruning height combinations but increased more rapidly at higher densities; Treatments with dense spacing increased seed production earlier; Many combinations of stand density and target height gave comparable levels of seed production, yielding a wide range of viable management options.

Seed orchards are the link between tree breeding and reforestation. This paper presents data on cone, seed and pollen production and seed quality gathered over 21 years in a Pinus sylvestris (L.) experimental seed orchard containing plots with 14 different combinations of stand density and targeted pruning height. The treatments’ stand densities ranged from 267 to 4000 stems ha-1, and the target graft heights ranged from 2 to 6 meters. Pollen production began at the same orchard age for all studied combinations of stand density and target height but the level of pollen production per hectare increased more rapidly in treatments with higher stand densities. In treatments with dense spacing, cone and seed production initially increased more rapidly than in treatments with wider spacing, thereby providing an earlier return on investment and a shorter seed production lag time. However, the levels of cone and seed production in such treatments over the entire study period were not appreciably different to those achieved in treatments with wider spacing and higher target height. The treatments did not differ substantially with respect to seed quality. These results show that comparable levels of seed production can be obtained with different combinations of stand density and target height, giving seed orchard owners and managers a wide range of viable management options.

  • Almqvist, Skogforsk (The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: curt.almqvist@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Jansson, Skogforsk (The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: gunnar.jansson@skogforsk.se
article id 1236, category Research article
Monika Litkowiec, Beata P. Plitta-Michalak, Andrzej Lewandowski & Grzegorz Iszkuło. (2015). Homogenous genetic structure in populations of Taxus baccata with varied proportions of male and female individuals. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1236. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1236
Highlights: Polish populations of Taxus baccata showed a high level of genetic diversity within populations and moderate genetic differentiation between them after nSSR marker testing; No significant differences in the genetic variation between T. baccata male and female individuals were observed, and microsatellite loci neutrality was verified; Determining the sex ratio in T. baccata populations is not essential to develop a clear understanding of genetic differentiation and diversity within and between populations of this species.

English yew (Taxus baccata L.) is a strictly outcrossing and dioecious species whose populations are small and isolated. It is known that sex ratios may vary in natural populations due to local environmental conditions or stochastic events. However, unbalanced sex ratios may have negative impacts on genetic diversity through enhanced genetic drift and inbreeding. The present study represents one of the first attempts to compare the genetic variation at microsatellite loci within and between populations with different gender proportions. Our results indicated that there were no significant correlations between sex ratio and the extent of genetic variation in different populations. All populations exhibited high levels of genetic diversity. Additionally, the genetic structure was characterized separately in male and female individuals. Statistical analyses of the set estimators describing the genetic structure of male and female individuals of T. baccata revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Molecular analysis verified that microsatellite nuclear loci neutrality developed for T. baccata, as there were no significant differences in the genetic variation between males and females and no evidence for any outlier loci using coalescent and hierarchical Bayesian simulations. The results demonstrate that ignoring biased sex ratios in T. baccata populations had no effect on the assessment of genetic differentiation and genetic diversity within and between populations of this species. These results are discussed with regards to the practical application of molecular markers in conservation programs.

  • Litkowiec, Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: mlit@man.poznan.pl (email)
  • Plitta-Michalak, Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: beata-plitta@wp.pl
  • Lewandowski, Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: alew@man.poznan.pl
  • Iszkuło, Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland & University of Zielona Góra, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Prof. Z. Szafrana 1, 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: iszkulo@man.poznan.pl
article id 1155, category Research article
Feng Chen, Yujiang Yuan, Wenshou Wei, Tongwen Zhang, Huaming Shang & Shulong Yu. (2015). Divergent response of tree-ring width and maximum latewood density of Abies faxoniana to warming trends at the timberline of the western Qinling Mountains and northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1155. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1155
Highlights: We describe new tree-ring width and maximum latewood density chronologies of Faxon fir; Temperature is the most important limiting factor for the radial growth of Faxon fir; The tree-ring width series captured the warming trends and allowed detecting the recent warming in a long-term context, while the maximum latewood density series showed no upward trend.

Tree-ring width (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) data of Faxon fir (Abies faxoniana Rehd. et Wils.) were analyzed for five timberline sites in the western Qinling Mountains and northeastern Tibetan Plateau, to investigate their relationships to climate change, especially twentieth century warming. The cross-correlations among TRW chronologies at the low-frequency band were higher, while the higher correlations among MXD chronologies were found at the high-frequency band. Response analysis showed that the tree-ring formation of fir trees was significantly and positively affected by temperature variations, while it was also negatively affected by precipitation. The TRW series captured the warming trends and allowed detecting the recent warming in a long-term context, while the MXD series showed no upward trend. We also found the temperature sensitivity of the TRW series is unstable over space and time. The divergent response between TRW and MXD might be caused by the seasonal variations of warming trends.

  • Chen, Key Laboratory of Tree-ring Physical and Chemical Research of China Meteorological Administration/Xinjiang Laboratory of Ecology, Institute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, 46 Jianguo Road, Urumqi 830002, China ORCID ID:E-mail: feng653@163.com (email)
  • Yuan, Key Laboratory of Tree-ring Physical and Chemical Research of China Meteorological Administration/Xinjiang Laboratory of Ecology, Institute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, 46 Jianguo Road, Urumqi 830002, China ORCID ID:E-mail: yuanyuj5502@sina.com
  • Wei, Key Laboratory of Tree-ring Physical and Chemical Research of China Meteorological Administration/Xinjiang Laboratory of Ecology, Institute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, 46 Jianguo Road, Urumqi 830002, China ORCID ID:E-mail: cycfqq@sohu.com
  • Zhang, Key Laboratory of Tree-ring Physical and Chemical Research of China Meteorological Administration/Xinjiang Laboratory of Ecology, Institute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, 46 Jianguo Road, Urumqi 830002, China ORCID ID:E-mail: tongwenzhang19820705@hotmail.com
  • Shang, Key Laboratory of Tree-ring Physical and Chemical Research of China Meteorological Administration/Xinjiang Laboratory of Ecology, Institute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, 46 Jianguo Road, Urumqi 830002, China ORCID ID:E-mail: shang8632@163.com
  • Yu, Key Laboratory of Tree-ring Physical and Chemical Research of China Meteorological Administration/Xinjiang Laboratory of Ecology, Institute of Desert Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, 46 Jianguo Road, Urumqi 830002, China ORCID ID:E-mail: yushl@idm.cn

Category: Research note

article id 1330, category Research note
Hanne K. Sjølie, Hans Asbjørn Kårstad Sørlie, Bjørn Tveite & Birger Solberg. (2015). The performance of two Swedish N fertilization functions evaluated on data from Norwegian fertilization experiments. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1330. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1330
Highlights: The performance of two predictive Swedish fertilization growth response functions was assessed on data from Norwegian fertilization experiments; One function performed well on the full dataset, but overpredicted the growth response in spruce plots and underpredicted in pine plots; The second function performed well in pine stands, but overestimated the growth response in spruce and in total.

This study compares the responses of two Swedish 5-year predictive stand-level functions with the observed responses in 721 fertilization experiment plots in Norway fertilized with nitrogen (N). All plots are single-species consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) or Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) fertilized with ammonium nitrate (AN) or urea. The correlations between the observed and the two predicted responses were 0.34–0.40 for all plots taken together. One response function performed well on average, but underestimated the response in pine plots and overestimated the response in spruce plots. The second function overpredicted the response on the full dataset, in spruce plots and old forest, but performed well in pine plots. Both functions overestimated the growth response in high-productive plots. Higher N deposition in Norway than in Sweden may count for parts of the deviations. Testing of fertilization functions on new datasets is rare, but important part of the evaluation of functions. As the functions are not well fit for predicting the growth response in spruce and high-productive plots in our sample, new functions that include N deposition are welcome.

  • Sjølie, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: hanne.sjolie@nmbu.no (email)
  • Sørlie, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: hans.asbjorn.sorlie@slf.dep.no
  • Tveite, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: bjorn.tveite@skogoglandskap.no
  • Solberg, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: birger.solberg@nmbu.no
article id 1320, category Research note
Abbot Okotie Oghenekaro, Geoffrey Daniel & Fred O Asiegbu. (2015). The saprotrophic wood-degrading abilities of Rigidoporus microporus. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1320. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1320
Highlights: Rigidoporus microporus isolates displayed varying saprotrophic capabilities on wood blocks of Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis); Percentage mass loss of (Hevea brasiliensis) wood blocks caused by the pathogenic Rigidoporus microporus was significantly higher than that observed with the endophytic isolate; The endophytic isolate has very poor saprotrophic ability on Hevea brasiliensis wood blocks.

Saprotrophic wood-decaying abilities of Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus and the structural alterations induced in wood blocks of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg were studied. Mass loss of wood blocks was analyzed after 3 and 6 months respectively and the patterns of decay by pathogenic and endophytic isolates of this fungus were investigated using light microscopy. Effects of temperature on growth of the isolates on malt extract agar were also investigated. The R. microporus isolated from a non-H. brasiliensis host caused the highest percentage mass loss (27.2% after 6 months), followed by isolates ED310 (21.1%) and M13 (15.7%), both collected from diseased H. brasiliensis plantations. The isolate initially identified as an endophyte showed very low saprotrophic wood decay capability (4.3% after 6 months). The optimal temperature for growth of the isolates was 30 °C; except for the endophytic isolate which showed highest growth at 25 °C. Wood samples degraded by the R. microporus isolates showed simultaneous attack of wood cell walls, typical of white rot fungi. Results of the study indicate variability in the wood degrading abilities of the isolates and the potential differences in their physiology are discussed. Our findings further support the need for a taxonomical revision of the Rigidoporus genus.

  • Oghenekaro, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: abbot.oghenekaro@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Daniel, Department of Forest Products/Wood Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7008, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: geoffrey.daniel@slu.se
  • Asiegbu, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: fred.asiegbu@helsinki.fi
article id 1275, category Research note
Arshad Ali, Ming-Shan Xu, Yan-Tao Zhao, Qing-Qing Zhang, Liu-Li Zhou, Xiao-Dong Yang & En-Rong Yan. (2015). Allometric biomass equations for shrub and small tree species in subtropical China. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1275. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1275
Highlights: Diameter (D) and height (H) are strong predictors in species-specific and multispecies models for the aboveground biomass of subtropical shrubs and small trees; Although wet basic density and crown shape may improve the predictive power of aboveground biomass slightly, the labor intensive measurements for wet basic density and crown shape may be disregarded when a large number of individuals are to be surveyed; Our results extend the generality of D-H models for aboveground biomass for large trees to subtropical shrubs and small trees.

Species-specific allometric equations for shrubs and small trees are relatively scarce, thus limiting the precise quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in both shrubby vegetation and forests. Fourteen shrub and small tree species in Eastern China were selected to develop species-specific and multispecies allometric biomass equations. Biometric variables, including the diameter of the longest stem (D), height (H), wet basic density (BD), and crown area and shape were measured for each individual plant. We measured the AGB through a non-destructive method, and validated these measurements using the dry mass of the sampled plant components. The AGB was related to biometric variables using regression analysis. The species-specific allometric models, with D and H as predictors (D-H models) accounted for 70% to 99% of the variation in the AGB of shrubs and small trees. A multispecies allometric D-H model accounted for 71% of the variation in the AGB. Although BD, as an additional predictor, improved the fit of most models, the D-H models were adequate for predicting the AGB for shrubs and small trees in subtropical China without BD data.

  • Ali, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Tiantong National Forest Ecosystem Observations and Research Station, Ningbo 315114, Zhejiang, China; Department of Environmental Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200, KPK, Pakistan ORCID ID:E-mail: arshadforester@gmail.com
  • Xu, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Tiantong National Forest Ecosystem Observations and Research Station, Ningbo 315114, Zhejiang, China ORCID ID:E-mail: yumsh09@lzu.edu.cn
  • Zhao, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Tiantong National Forest Ecosystem Observations and Research Station, Ningbo 315114, Zhejiang, China ORCID ID:E-mail: zhaoyantao1991@163.com
  • Zhang, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Tiantong National Forest Ecosystem Observations and Research Station, Ningbo 315114, Zhejiang, China ORCID ID:E-mail: qingzq@yeah.net
  • Zhou, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Tiantong National Forest Ecosystem Observations and Research Station, Ningbo 315114, Zhejiang, China ORCID ID:E-mail: 792920738@qq.com
  • Yang, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Tiantong National Forest Ecosystem Observations and Research Station, Ningbo 315114, Zhejiang, China ORCID ID:E-mail: xjyangxd@sina.com
  • Yan, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Tiantong National Forest Ecosystem Observations and Research Station, Ningbo 315114, Zhejiang, China ORCID ID:E-mail: eryan@des.ecnu.edu.cn (email)

Category: Discussion article

article id 1304, category Discussion article
Annika Kangas & Teppo Hujala. (2015). Challenges in publishing: producing, assuring and communicating quality. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1304. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1304

This paper is based on a session “How to make forest science available for all? Publishers’, editors’, and authors’ challenges” at the IUFRO XXIV world conference, organized by Pekka Nygren and Eeva Korpilahti from the Finnish Society of Forest Science. The presenters dealt with the topical problems of publishing scientific knowledge from different perspectives. The talks covered the development of journals, publications and submissions, benefits and drawbacks of open access publishing as well as electronic and traditional publishing, and possibilities to promote interesting papers either from the journal’s or from the author’s perspective, and the problems of disseminating the scientific results to the end users. In this paper, a few prevalent viewpoints, inspired by the session, are raised and discussed with some suggestions included.

  • Kangas, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@luke.fi (email)
  • Hujala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: teppo.hujala@luke.fi

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